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1. Industrial report iN: RF LINK DESIGN FOR 2G AND 3G Submitted in the practical fulfilment for the award of degree of bachelor of technology in ELECTRONICS AND…
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  • 1. Industrial report iN: RF LINK DESIGN FOR 2G AND 3G Submitted in the practical fulfilment for the award of degree of bachelor of technology in ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING From MAHARISHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY (ROHTAK) AT Submitted by: AMBER KHANNA BHUMIKA KATYAL RASHMI KURUP
  • 2. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 1 - ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this report. A special thanks to our final year project co-guide at AIRCEL, Mr. Amit Mittal and Ms. Uma Reddy, whose help, stimulating suggestions and encouragement, helped me to coordinate my project especially in writing this report. I would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation the crucial role of the staff of AIRCEL INDIA, who gave the permission to use all required equipments, computer systems and the necessary material to complete my project. I would like to express my sincere thanks and heart full gratitude to Mr. Dipayan Panjafor his immense support & guidance whenever needed during the course of my training .I would also like to extend my gratitude to the whole staff of Aircel India for providing all the required data and information and helping me in the success of the training. This work could not have been completed without the indispensable assistance rendered to us by Mr. Nitin Tyagi for providing us numerous facilities to study their resources. .
  • 3. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 2 - TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I 1. Company profile..............................................................................................................4 1.1. Early history and timeline ................................................................................................ 5 1.2. Core business...................................................................................................................... 6 1.3. Key people.......................................................................................................................... 8 Chapter II 2. Introduction to mobile communication.........................................................................10 2.1. Basic architecture of GSM .............................................................................................11 2.2. GSM interfaces.................................................................................................................22 Chapter III 3. Wireless concepts ..........................................................................................................28 3.1. Basic definitions for frequency concepts......................................................................32 Chapter IV 4. Features of GSM............................................................................................................33 4.1. Base station identity code...............................................................................................35 Chapter V 5. Channel concept ............................................................................................................37 5.1. Data services in GSM.......................................................................................................39 Chapter VI 6. GPRS Architechture..........................................................................................................41 6.1. GPRS network element...................................................................................................41 6.2. Security services in GPRS................................................................................................42 Chapter VII 7. Introduction to RF planning..........................................................................................44 7.1. Tools used for RF planning............................................................................................44 7.2. Basic definition used in RF propagation ......................................................................47 7.3. Propagation losses…………….. ...................................................................................49
  • 4. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 3 - Chapter VIII 8. RF planning procedures............................................................................................54 8.1. Initial Survay....................................................................................................................55 8.2. Initial design.....................................................................................................................56 8.3. Selection of sites..............................................................................................................57 Chapter IX 9. RF planning tools used 9.1. Mentum Planet.................................................................................................................64 Chapter X 10. Need of advanced systems ...................................................................................... 79 10.1. Spread spectrum .............................................................................................. 84 10.2. WCDMA system…………………………............…………………………………. 87 11 RF planning for Patna 3G 11.1 Screen Shots for Planning........................................................................................95 References Reference……………………………………………………………………118
  • 5. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 4 - ABSTRACT The project titledRF link design for 2G and 3G is being actively done in the Aircel Limited, Team-RF Planning, as a part of Four months Internship. The Internship program consists of RF Planning fundamentals, i.e. how an information is transferred from auser equipment to the core mobile networkbased on GSM,CDMA,WCDMA, structure of the network, the basic functionality of the devices, tools and process and a brief session on planning management. It also includes a brief explanation of the live projects undertaken. Here we also worked on a simulation software(Mentum Planet, Map Info Professional) which acts as a backbone for the radio network in a mobile system.
  • 6. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 5 - COMPANY PROFILE Aircel group is an Indian mobile network operator Headquartered in Gurgaon that provides wireless voice, messaging and data services in India. It is a joint venture between Maxis Communications Berhad of Malaysia, whose current shareholders are the Reddy family of Apollo Hospitals Group of India, with Maxis Communications holding a majority stake of 74%. Aircel commenced operations in 1999 and today is the leading mobile operator in Tamil Nadu, Assam, North-East India and Chennai. It is India’s fifth largest GSMmobile service provider and seventh largest mobile service provider (both GSM and CDMA) with a subscriber base of over 63.35 million, as of December 2012. It has a market share of 7.33% among wireless operators (includes GSM, CDMA, and FWP operators) in the country. Aircel has also obtained permission from the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) to provide International Long Distance (ILD) and National Long Distance (NLD) telephony services. It also has the Largest service in Tamil Nadu.
  • 7. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 6 - EARLY HISTORY AND TIMELINE  1999:- Started as a Regional Player in Tamil Nadu. Aircel started as a regional player in Tamil Nadu in 1999 by Chinnakannan Sivasankaran.Soon, it became the leading operator in Tamil Nadu.  2005:- 74% stake Purchased by Malaysian Telecom Giant Maxis Communication Companys Rapid Growing popularity attracted foreign investments and Malaysian operator Maxis Communications bought a 74 percent stake in the company in 2005 from its Indian owner Chinnakannan Sivasankaran.  2010:- Company bought 3G and Wireless Broadband (BWA) In 2010, the company bought 3G and wireless broadband (BWA) spectrum in 13 and 8 circles respectively in the 2010 spectrum auction. It paid US$ 1.44 billion ( 79.1 billion) for the 3G spectrum and US$ 0.76 billion ( 49.76 billion) for BWA.  2012:- Test run for 4G in Hyderabad  November 2012:- 1 million 3G Customers  December 2012:- 63.35 million 2G customers  2013:- Expected to launch 4G circle in Chennai.
  • 8. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 7 - Core Business Fig. 1 Core Business Core Businesses 2G Telecom Service 3G Telecom Service Wireless Broadband(BWA) Aircel Buisness Solutions
  • 9. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 8 - 3G Coverage Aircel 3G spectrum is present in 13 states:- 1.) Andhra Pradesh, 2.) Karnataka, 3.) Tamil Nadu, 4.) Kolkata, 5.) Kerala, 6.) Punjab, 7.) Uttar Pradesh (East), 8.) West Bengal, 9.) Jammu & Kashmir, 10.) Bihar, 11.) Orissa, 12.) Assam 13.) North East Aircel Business Solutions Aircel Business Solutions (ABS), part of Aircel, sells enterprise solutions such as Multiprotocol Label Switching Virtual Private Networks (MPLS VPNs), Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and managed video services on wireless platforms including WiMAX.
  • 10. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 9 - Key people  Chief Operating Officer :- Dr. Kaizad Heerjee  Chief Financial Officer :- Mr. Anup Vikal  Head Operating Division :- Mr. Jean Pascal Annual Revenue Aircel generates an annual Revenue of 1.159 billion US Dollars. Major Stake Holders  74% stake by Malaysian Telecom Giant Maxis Communication Behrad.  26% Stake by Owner of Apollo Hospitals Mr. Reddy
  • 11. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 10 -
  • 12. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 11 - Introduction A connection between two people  a caller and the called person  is the basic service of all telephone networks. To provide this service, the network must be able to set up and maintain a call, which involves a number of tasks: identifying the called person, determining the location, routing the call, and ensuring that the connection is sustained as long as the conversation lasts. After the transaction, the connection is terminated and (normally) the calling user is charged for the service he has used. In a fixed telephone network, providing and managing connections is a relatively easy process, because telephones are connected by wires to the network and their location is permanent from the networks’ point of view. In a mobile network, however, the establishment of a call is a far more complex task, as the wireless (radio) connection enables the users to move at their own free will  providing they stay within the network's service area. In practice, the network has to find solutions to three problems before it can even set up a call: Fig.2. Information required by a mobile communications network In other words, the subscriber has to be located and identified to provide him/her with the requested services. In order to understand how we are able to serve thesubscribers, it is necessary to identify the main interfaces, the subsystems and network elements in the GSM network, as well as their functions. •Where is the subscriber •Who is the subscriber •What does the subscriber want Information about the subscriber
  • 13. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 12 - BASIC ARCHITECTURE OF GSM Fig3 Basic Architecture of GSM The GSM network is called Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN). It is organised in three subsystems:  Base Station Subsystem (BSS)  Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)  Network Management Subsystem (NMS)
  • 14. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 13 - Mobile Station (MS) In GSM, the mobile phone is called Mobile Station (MS). The MS is a combination of terminal equipment and subscriber data. The terminal equipment as such is called ME (Mobile Equipment) and the subscriber's data is stored in a separate module called SIM (Subscriber Identity Module). Therefore, ME + SIM = MS. Fig4. Inserting a SIM card in a mobile phone From the user’s point of view, the SIM is certainly the best-known database used in a GSM network. The SIM is a small memory device mounted on a card and contains user-specific identification. The SIM card can be taken out of one mobile equipment and inserted into another. In the GSM network, the SIM card identifies the user  just like a traveller uses a passport to identify himself. The SIM card contains the identification numbers of the user and a list of available networks. The SIM card also contains tools needed for authentication and ciphering. Depending on the type of the card, there is also storage space for messages, such as phone numbers. A home operator issues a SIM card when the user joins the network by making a service subscription. The home operator of the subscriber can be anywhere in the world, but for practical reasons the subscriber chooses one of the operators in the country where he/she spends most of the time.
  • 15. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 14 - SIM • The SIM is a removable card that plugs into the ME. • It identifies the mobile subscriber and provides information about the service that the subscriber should receive. • The SIM contains several pieces of information – International Mobile Subscribers Identity ( IMSI ) - This number identifies the mobile subscriber. It is only transmitted over the air during initialising. – Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity ( TMSI ) - This number also identifies the subscriber. It can be alternatively used by the system. It is periodically changed by the system to protect the subscriber from being identified by someone attempting to monitor the radio interface. – Location Area Identity ( LAI ) - Identifies the current location of the subscriber. – Subscribers Authentication Key ( Ki ) - This is used to authenticate the SIM card. Mobile Station International Standard Data Number ( MSISDN ) - This is the telephone number of the mobile. • Mostof the data contained within the SIM is protected against reading (eg Ki ) or alterations after the SIM is issued. • Some of the parameters ( eg. LAI ) will be continously updated to reflect the current location of the subscriber. • The SIM card can be protected by use of Personal Identity Number ( PIN ) password. • The SIM is capable of storing additional information such as accumulated call charges. FULL SIZE SIM CARD Fig 5 Full size sim card
  • 16. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 15 - Mobile Station International Subscribers Dialling Number( MSISDN ) : • Human identity used to call a MS • The Mobile Subscriber ISDN (MSISDN) number is the telephone number of the MS. • This is the number a calling party dials to reach the subscriber. • It is used by the land network to route calls toward the MSC. CC = Country code NDC = National Destination Code SN = Subscriber Number International Mobile Subscribers Identity ( IMSI ) : • Network Identity Unique to a MS • The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is the primary identity of the subscriber within the mobile network and is permanently assigned to that subscriber. • The IMSI can be maximum of 15 digits. MCC= Mobile Country Code (3 digits) MNC=Mobile network Code (2 digits) MSIN=Mobile Subscriber Identity Number Temporary Mobile Subscribers Identity ( TMSI ) : • The GSM system can also assign a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI). • After the subscriber's IMSI has been initialized on the system, the TMSI can be used for sending messages backwards and forwards across the network to identify the subscriber.
  • 17. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 16 - • The system automatically changes the TMSI at regular intervals, thus protecting the subscriber from being identified by someone attempting to monitor the radio channels. • The TMSI is a local number and is always allocated by the VLR. • The TMSI is maximum of 4 octets. International Mobile Equipment Identity ( IMEI ) : • IMEI is a serial number unique to each mobile • Each MS is identified by an International Mobile station Equipment Identity (IMEI) number which is permanently stored in the Mobile Equipment. • On request, the MS sends this number over the signalling channel to the MSC. • The IMEI can be used to identify MSs that are reported stolen or operating incorrectly. TAC FAC SNR SP 6 2 6 1
  • 18. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 17 - BASE STATION SUBSYSTEM The Base Station Subsystem is responsible for managing the radio network, and it is controlled by an MSC. Typically, one MSC contains several BSSs. A BSS itself may cover a considerably large geographical area consisting of many cells(a cell refers toan area covered by one or more frequency resources). The BSS consists of the following elements:  BSC Base Station Controller  BTS Base Transceiver Station  TRAU Transcoder and Rate Adaptation Unit (sometimes also called TC (Transcoder)) Fig6. The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Some of the most important BSS tasks are listed in the following: Radio path control In the GSM network, the Base Station Subsystem (BSS) is the part of the network taking care of radio resources, that is, radio channel allocation and quality of the radio connection. Synchronisation The BSS uses hierarchical synchronisation, which means that the MSC synchronises the BSC, and the BSC further synchronises the BTSs associated with that particular BSC. Inside the BSS, synchronisation is controlled by the BSC. Synchronisation is a critical issue in the GSM network due to the nature of the information transferred. If the synchronisation chain is not working correctly, calls may be cut or the call quality may not be the best possible. Ultimately, it may even be impossible to establish a call. Air- and A-interface signalling In order to establish a call, the MS must have a connection throughhe the BSS. BTS TC BSC BSC TC BTS BTS
  • 19. RF link design for 2G and 3G AIRCEL LIMITED P age - 18 - Connection establishment between the MS and the NSS The BSS is located between two interfaces, the air- and the A-interface. The MS must have a connection through these two interfaces before a call can be established. Generally speaking, this connection may be either a signalling connection or a traffic (speech, data) connection. Mobility management and speech transcoding BSS mobility management mainly covers the different cases of handovers. These handovers and speech transcoding are explained in later sections. Let us now have a closer look at each of the individual network elements (BSC, BTS, and Transcoder. Base Station Controller (BSC) The BSC is the central network element of the BSS and it controls the radio network. It has several important tasks, some of which are presented in the following: Connection establishment between the MS and the NSS All calls to and from the MS are connected through the switching functionality of the BSC. Mobility management The BSC is responsible for initiating the vast majority of all handovers, and it makes the handover decision based on, among others, measurement reports sent by the MS during a call. Statistical raw data collection Information from the Base Transceiver Stations, Transcoders, and BSC are collected in the BSC and forwarded via the DCN (Data Communications Network) to the NMS (Network Management Subsystem), where they are post-processed into statistical views, from which the network quality and status is obtained. Air- and A-interface signalling support In the A-interface, SS#7 (Common Channel Signalling System No. 7) is used as the signalling language, while the environment in the air interface allows the usage of a protocol adapted from ISDN standards, namely LAPDm (Link Access Protocol on the ISDN D Channel, modified version). Between the Base Transceiver Station and the BSC (Abis interf
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