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1. Secret agents Lindsay Judge December 2016 @resfoundation Agency workers in the new world of work 2. 2 ã Definitions ã Scale of agency worker use in the UK today…
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  • 1. Secret agents Lindsay Judge December 2016 @resfoundation Agency workers in the new world of work
  • 2. 2 • Definitions • Scale of agency worker use in the UK today • The what, where and who of agency work • Pay and working life • Future research Beginning of an 18 month investigation into agency work – today will cover…
  • 3. 3 DEFINITIONS
  • 4. 4 What is an agency worker? Worker Workplace firm Agency
  • 5. 5 What is an agency worker? Worker Workplace firm Agency
  • 6. 6 What is an agency worker? Worker Workplace firm Agency
  • 7. 7 Employment rights of agency workers Employment status NLW/ NMW Holiday pay No unlawful deducti on Maternit y paternit y adoptio n Sick pay Unfair dismiss al Non- discrimi nation Employee       
  • 8. 8 Employment rights of agency workers Employment status NLW/ NMW Holiday pay No unlawful deducti on Maternit y paternit y adoptio n Sick pay Unfair dismiss al Non- discrimi nation Employee        Worker    May qualify for SMP May qualify for SSP 
  • 9. 9 Employment rights of agency workers Employment status NLW/ NMW Holiday pay No unlawful deducti on Maternit y paternit y adoptio n Sick pay Unfair dismiss al Non- discrimi nation Employee        Worker    May qualify for SMP May qualify for SSP  Self-employed 
  • 10. 10 Employment rights of agency workers Employment status NLW/ NMW Holiday pay No unlawful deducti on Maternit y paternit y adoptio n Sick pay Unfair dismiss al Non- discrimi nation Employee        Worker    May qualify for SMP May qualify for SSP  Self-employed  Agency worker regulations (2010) Equal pay Equal holiday pay Equal holiday allowan ce Antenat al appoint- ments After 12 weeks continuous service    
  • 11. 11 Employment rights of agency workers Employment status NLW/ NMW Holiday pay No unlawful deducti on Maternit y paternit y adoptio n Sick pay Unfair dismiss al Non- discrimi nation Employee        Worker    May qualify for SMP May qualify for SSP  Self-employed  Agency worker regulations (2010) Equal pay Equal holiday pay Equal holiday allowan ce Antenat al appoint- ments After 12 weeks continuous service    
  • 12. 12 HOW MANY AGENCY WORKERS ARETHERE INTHE UK?
  • 13. There are 340,000 temporary agency workers in the UK today 13 Temporary agency workers: UK Source: RF analysis of ONS, Labour Force Survey
  • 14. We uncover a further 440,000 permanent agency workers 14 Temporary and permanent agency workers: UK Source: RF analysis of ONS, Labour Force Survey
  • 15. A mysterious 66,000 agency workers say they are paid by an agency and do not administer their tax/NI 15 Workers paid by an agency, by tax and NI status: UK Source: RF analysis of ONS, Labour Force Survey
  • 16. Putting it all together, we estimate there are 865,000 agency workers in the UK today 16 All agency workers: UK Source: RF analysis of ONS, Labour Force Survey
  • 17. 17 WHAT, WHERE, WHO?
  • 18. Agency workers are found in high- and low-value sectors – and the public sector too 18 Share of agency workers in industries: UK Source: RF analysis of ONS, Labour Force Survey
  • 19. There are some agency worker hotspots – but regional variation is not that stark 19 Share of agency workers in regions: UK Source: RF analysis of ONS, Labour Force Survey
  • 20. Agency work is strongly biased towards lower occupational roles 20 Share of agency workers in occupational groups: UK Source: RF analysis of ONS, Labour Force Survey
  • 21. 8 per cent of Black/African/Caribbean workers are agency workers 21 Share of agency workers in ethnic groups: UK Source: RF analysis of ONS, Labour Force Survey
  • 22. 1 in 10 of the EU Accession/ Eastern Europe-born workforce is an agency worker 22 Share of agency workers in occupational groups: UK Source: RF analysis of ONS, Labour Force Survey
  • 23. 23 PAY AND CONDITIONS
  • 24. 24 • Agency workers have a raw pay differential of £2.57/hour but… • … Controlling for personal characteristics and type of jobs of agency workers, the pay penalty reduces to 22p/hour • Equivalent to £430 a year for a full time worker Is there a pay penalty attached to agency work?
  • 25. Most agency workers are full-time – with a third of part-timers unable to find a full-time job 25 Working patterns of agency workers: UK, 2014-2016 Source: RF analysis of ONS, Labour Force Survey
  • 26. Agency workers have short periods employment but more than 1 in 3 has worked in same role for 2+ years 26 Length of continuous employment for agency workers: UK 2014-2016 Source: RF analysis of ONS, Labour Force Survey
  • 27. Temporary work is a second best option for many 27 Reasons for working temporarily, temporary agency workers only: UK 2013-2016 Source: RF analysis of ONS, Labour Force Survey
  • 28. 28 • We need to know more about agency workers – Who are the permanent group? Self-employed? – What are their motivations? – How does agency work fit into their overall working life? • Why do firms use agency workers?What do agencies offer workers and firms alike? • Role of policy The future
  • 29. Secret agents Lindsay Judge December 2016 @resfoundation Agency workers in the new world of work
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