cell adhesion molecules

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1.  Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are glycoproteins located on the cell surface. These proteins are typically trans membrane receptors and are composed of three…
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  • 1.  Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are glycoproteins located on the cell surface. These proteins are typically trans membrane receptors and are composed of three domains:  intracellular domain......with cytoskeleton  trans membrane domain...with CAMs  extracellular domain...with extracellular matrix  CAMs are involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM).  help cells to stick to each other and to their surroundings.
  • 2.  Cell adhesion receptors enable cells to recognize and bind molecules on other cells or in the extracellular matrix.  Cell adhesion receptors can form  Homophilic (or homotypic) adhesions – between same type of molecules( Cadherin – cadherin)  Heterophilic (or heterotypic) adhesions –between different type of molecules(Selectins – mucins)
  • 3. Most of the cell adhesion molecules belong to five major protein families:  Cadherins  IgSuper family CAMs  Selctins  Integrins  Mucins
  • 4.  The cadherins are calcium-dependent adhesion molecules plays important role in cell adhesion by forming desmosomes.  Sub classes  Neural (N)-Cadherin  Placental(P)- Cadherin  Epithelial(E)-Cadherin  They exhibit homophilic adhesion.  The failure of cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion cascade ------breast cancer. .
  • 5.  The Ig superfamily CAMs are calcium-independent trans membrane glycoproteins.  Members includes: ICAM, VCAM-1 PECAM-1, NCAM.  function by both homophilic and heterophilic binding  Involved in recognition, binding or adhesion processes of cells.  all possess an extracellular region known as immunoglobulin domains or folds.
  • 6.  The selectins are a family of divalent cation dependent glycoproteins.  They are carbohydrate-binding proteins.  Members includes: Endothelial (E)-selectin Leukocyte (L)-selectin Platelet (P)-selectin  plays an important role in many host defense mechanisms.
  • 7.  Integrins are a diverse and large group of heterodimeric glycoproteins.  alpha and beta.. both participate in binding.  Eight sub families.. β1 through β8.  Integrins participate in cell-cell adhesion , in binding and interactions of cells with components of the extracellular matrix such as fibronectin.
  • 8.  The Mucins are the group of serine and threonine-rich protein and hydroxyproline enabling post-translational O-glycosylation.  Their extended structure allows them to present sulfated carbohydrate moieties as binding site for selectins
  • 9. Cell adhesion molecules have following functions: Involvement in inflammation Tumorigenesis Establishment of the blood-brain barrier Involvement in lymphocyte homing In regulation of apoptosis.
  • 10.  Special interactions between molecule expressed on the surface of leukocytes (receptor) and molecule on the surface of potential target cells (ligands) are important mechanism in cell-cell communication. These surface molecules collectively called cell adhesion molecule.  They are classified into five major families.  Despite of their various role, malfunctioning of CAMs leads to breast cancer, leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) syndrome , epithelial cell cancer
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