Leaning Tower of Pisa - The Wonders of the World

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The leaning tower of Pisa, called Torre Pendente DI Pisa in Italian, is completely different than most medieval architecture.The Pisa tower is one among the four buildings that structure the cathedral advanced in the city, Italy, known as the Campo dei Miracoli or piazza dei Miracoli, which implies Field of Miracles.
Transcript
  • 1. Presented By: www.tripglob.com
  • 2.  Introduction  A brief history of the tower.  Why the structure failed.  The reason it still stands.  The attempts to straighten the tower.  The reason it still leans.
  • 3.  One of the “SEVEN wonders of the World.”  Located in PISA, Italy at the 'Piazza dei Miracoli' square.  Bell tower for the Cathedral.  Renowned all over the world for its peculiar inclination.  Popular tourist hotspot. Building was shut down to tourists in 1990, but has open up because of extensive restoration efforts by government agencies.  Building reopened in April, 2001.
  • 4. • The tower began construction in August 1173 and continued until 1343. • The tower was intended to be vertical, but began leaning to the southeast during construction due to a mere three meter foundation, set in weak , unstable subsoil, which means the design was flawed from the beginning. •
  • 5. There were many attempts to halt the incipient inclination through the use of special construction devices. In 1272 Giovanni di Simone tried to compensate for the tilt by building higher floors with one side taller than the other, which made the tower begin to lean in the other direction. Because of this the tower is actually curved.
  • 6.  Weight = 14,700 metric tones  Ring shaped diameter = 19.6 m  Thickness of wall =4.1 m, and 2.7 m for all other levels.  Inclination = 5 ½ degree’s to the south.  32,240 blocks ("ashlars") for facing the exterior and interior of the cylindrical wall structure.  15 half columns at the base.  180 columns for base.  12 columns for belfry.
  • 7.  The unstable mixture of soil – caused the tower to sink to the south side.  Soil at south side compressed faster than the north side – weight of the tower was the main factor of tilt.  Tilting was also due to the fluctuations of the water levels.  This caused the tower to keep shifting, as well as rotate…later discovered by scientists that the tower’s position shifted in relation to the ground water level.
  • 8.  The first lean of the tower was South.  After trying to even the floors, it leaned North.
  • 9. This is an over exaggerated picture of the plan to make it straight
  • 10.  It was thought that the tower would tip over due to the angle of tilt.  However, it would Collapse due to enormous stress.  Stones on first few floors had most stress – they had to support the weight = 14,700 tones.  Stones on south side had stress because of incline.  The stress kept increasing as the inclination increased, therefore there was danger of the tower collapsing.  The outside of the tower is made of strong marble, but the inside is made up of rubble, hence the walls cannot support the resulting stress.
  • 11.  Mussolini drilled and filed holes in the base with concrete, this made it tilt worse. (1934)  Became unstable forcing the Italy government hired several engineers to stabilize it. (1964)
  • 12.  Engineers decided not to straighten the tower for tourists.  Instead, they gave it the relatively stable tilt of 13 degrees.  It is believed to stand for at least another 300 years.
  • 13.  In 1992, plastic coated steel wires were wrapped around the south side of the second floor to prevent a type of failure called “Buckling”.  Buckling = occurs when overly stressed walls suddenly burst outwards.  The tower still continued to incline to the south side.  In 1993, the incline was halted by stacking lead ingots on the north side of the tower.  There were 750 metric tons of lead. (Acted as support)  This caused the weight of north side = weight of south side.
  • 14.  Today, interventions are being carried out within the sub-soil in order to significantly reduce the inclination and to make sure that Tower will have a long life.
  • 15.  Read more about Leaning Tower of Pisa  hhttp://www.tripglob.com/famoustower/tower /leaningtowerofpisa
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