M.g.nikam nutrition seminar

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1. Presented by :- Dr .M.G.Nikam (RVD/12-16) PhD Student Department of Poultry Science C.V.Sc R’nagar Hyderabad 2.  “Minerals comprises of the ash obtain after…
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  • 1. Presented by :- Dr .M.G.Nikam (RVD/12-16) PhD Student Department of Poultry Science C.V.Sc R’nagar Hyderabad
  • 2.  “Minerals comprises of the ash obtain after complete oxidation of organic substances or biological material”.  Inorganic components of the diet  Makes up 3-5% of the body weight of animal  Macro Minerals:” Minerals normally present at greater levels in animal body or needed in large amounts in the diet (found in concentrations > 100 ppm)”  Micro (Trace) Minerals: “Minerals normally present at low levels in animal body (found in concentrations < 100 ppm).”
  • 3.  Calcium (Ca)  Phosphorus (P)  Sodium (Na)  Chloride (Cl)  Magnesium (Mg)  Potassium (K)  Sulfur (S)
  • 4.  Cobalt (Co)  Copper (Cu)  Fluoride (Fl)  Iodine (I)  Iron (Fe)  Manganese (Mn)  Molybdenum (Mo)  Selenium (Se)  Zinc (Zn)
  • 5. Sr.No Mineral % concentration in animal body 1. Calcium 1.5 2. Phosphorus 1.0 3. Sodium 0.16 4. Chlorine 0.11
  • 6. Critical Micro minerals Sr.No Mineral % concentration mg/kg 1. Iron 20-80 2. Zinc 10-50 3. Copper 1.5 4. Selenium 1.7 5. Iodine 0.3-0.6 6. Manganese 0.2-0.5
  • 7. Sr.No Particulars % mineral content 1. Green fodder 1.2-2.5 2. Dry fodder 6-6.5 3. Cereals 1.5-4.5. 4. Cereal by product 4.5-5.5 5.. Meat meal 15
  • 8.  Take part in the formation of bone, teeth and cartilages  Increases the activity of Thrombokinase for blood clotting  Maintain acid base equilibrium  Plays active role in enzyme synthesis  Control cell permeability
  • 9.  Cattle :-  Maintenance :-14 gms/day  Milk production :-2.3 gms/kg of milk production in addition to the maintenance ration  Poultry:-  Chicks:-1.8%/kg feed  Layer :-3% - 4%/ kg feed
  • 10.  Tetany,rickets,osteomalacia,osteoperosis in animals  Lower the egg yield & soft shelled eggs in Poultry  Milk fever in milk producing animals  Poor bone development
  • 11.  Component of bone. Nearly (80%) body P is in bone  Used as ATP for activation of many inert molecules in high energy bond  Take part in oxidation of carbohydrate  Structural constituent in cell component of phosphoprotein, phospholipids & nucleoprotein  Component of cell buffer system
  • 12.  Cattle :-  Maintenance :-14 gms/day  Milk production :-2 gms/kg of milk production  Poultry:-  Chicks:-1.5%/kg feed  Layer :-0.75%/ kg feed
  • 13.  Loss of appetite & weakness  Rickets in young birds/animals & Osteomalacia /pica in animals  Stunted growth in young animal  Low fertility and low milk yield  Layers  Decreased egg production, cage fatigue, reduced egg size, poor shell quality, blood spot, mottled yolk  Breeders  Decreased hatchability, poor performance offspring,
  • 14.  Helps in maintaining in pH and volume in body fluid  Necessary for transmitting energy impulses in nerves  Essential for absorption of certain essential nutrients  Function in the permeability and carrier of cell  Helps in activation of intestinal amylase and essential component of gastric juice
  • 15.  Cattle :-  0.5% or 21.3gms/day
  • 16.  Loss of appetite  Growth retardation  Poor feed utilization  Decrease in plasma fluid volume  Inactivity of Gonads  Corneal keritinization  Reduced egg production and hatchability  Cannibalism and molting in layer birds
  • 17.  Too much salt lead to toxicity or salt injury characterized by dehydration of body cell and death
  • 18.  An essential component of haemoglobin and myoglobin (90%)  An integral part of several enzymes ( oxidases, oxygenase, peroxidase, Catalase)  Essential for pigmentation of feather along with lysine & folic acid in colored feather chicken
  • 19. Sources Of Iron  Green leafy material, legumes,meat,blood and fish meal  Milk is poor source of iron. Absorption of iron  Absorbed through the gastro intestinal tract  Mainly in the duodenum and jejunum Iron Toxicity  Results in alimentary disturbances ,reduced growth and Phosphorus deficiency
  • 20. Cattle :-  500 mg/day Poultry:-  20mg/kg feed
  • 21.  Macrocytic & Hypochromic anemia  Low growth rate ,  Poor feathering ,  Depigmentation of feathers ,  Embryonic Mortality in Chicks from 9-15 days
  • 22.  Small quantity present in animal body,  Highest percentage is found in bones, liver, kidney, pancreas and pituitary glands. Sources-  Forages, Rice bran are richest source, whole rice
  • 23.  An integral part of many enzymes arginase , pyruvate , carboxilase,  Activate several enzymes hydrolases , kinases, & transferase  Involve in development of bone organic matrix  Help in biosynthesis in choline and cholesterol  Essential for insulin synthesis  Maintenance of immune system  Inhibits lipids peroxidation  Required for oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria
  • 24.  Cattle :- 16-25 mg/kg of ration  Swine  10mg/kg ration  Poultry:-  55mg/kg feed
  • 25.  Perosis ( chondrodystrophy ),slipped tendon in chicken.  Enlarged hock joints  Reduced growth ,hatchability ,poor shell quality  Ataxia and star gazing posture
  • 26. Sources-  Brans are the richest source, wheat middlings,zinc salt and zinc Chloride,molasses  Also found in yeast and animal protein sources like meat and fish meal.
  • 27.  Zn is found in every tissue in the animal body  Accumulates in bones rather than liver.  High conc. is found in skin, hair and wool. Functions :-  Activator of enzymes  Influences production secretion and storage of testosterone, insulin and adrenal corticosteroids  Act as anti-oxidant and protect cell membrane  Essential for integrity of immunity system
  • 28.  Reduced milk production, poor fertility, loss of hair in cattle's  Inflammation of nose and mouth, stiffness of joint and parakeratosis in calves.  Subnormal growth ,decreased appetite, poor FCR in pigs.  Decrease in weight of lymphoid organ  Reduced hatchability ,Embryonic abnormality  Reduced feed intake ,utilization delayed sexual maturity ,reduced egg production ,Poor feathering in chickens
  • 29.  Cattle :-9 mg/kg of ration  Swine:-50mg/kg ration  Sheep:-18-22 mg/kg ration Poultry:-35mg/kg feed
  • 30.  Help in red blood cell formation, synthesis of plasma proteins-celluloplasmin  An integral part of lysil oxidase and component of cytochrome oxidase help in synthesis of phospholipids  Useful for proper utilization of iron  Involved in electron transport mechanisms  Participate in process of osteogenesis and pigmentation of feathers
  • 31.  Seeds and seed byproducts  Liver and glandular meal  Dried whey  Peanut meal  Pasture Copper molybdenum interrelationship-  Excess Mo leads to poor absorption and storage of copper salt,  Deficiency of Mo cause more absorption and storage of copper in the body.
  • 32.  Cattle :- 5-7mg/kg of ration  Sheep:- 10-12 mg/kg ration
  • 33.  Excess copper gets accumulated in the liver.  Cattle and pigs are resistant to copper poisoning upto some extent.  Sheep are susceptible for chronic copper poisoning resulting in chronic necrosis of liver cell
  • 34.  Anemia  Enlargement ,thickening of aorta due to defective elastin formation  Fragile long bone and lameness  Shelless and Misshapen eggs
  • 35. 50% of Iodine is found in thyroid gland as thyroxin. It is also component of Di-iodo-tyrosine Sources:-  Food of marine origin like fish meal and seaweed
  • 36.  Thermoregulation  Intermediary metabolism  Cell oxidation  Neuromuscular function  Growth and reproduction
  • 37.  Cattle :- 0.1 mg/kg of ration  Swine:- 0.2mg/kg ration  Poultry:- 0.35mg/kg feed
  • 38.  Enlargement of thyroid gland  Poor growth ,egg production ,egg size  Abnormally long and lacy feather  Accumulation of fat, stillbirth  Decreased hatchability and sperm count
  • 39.  Sources  Green pastures contains Seleno methionine
  • 40.  A component of Glutathione peroxidase an enzyme cell membrane which prevents oxidative cell damage  Organic form  Seleno methionine rapidly absorbed compared to inorganic form sodium selenite Function  Protects the cellular and sub cellular membrane from oxidation  Important component for value addition of poultry
  • 41.  Exudative diathesis  Nutritional muscular dystrophy  Reduction of egg production  Embryonic mortality in layer breeders Toxicity-  Alkali disease and blind staggers in cattles,buffaloes,sheep  Dag-Nala disease
  • 42. REFRENCES  Mineral nutrition of livestock (3rd edition) E.J.Underwood  Trace elements in human and animal nutrition E.J.Underwood  Animal nutrition 5th edition Mc donold etal,  Handbook of poultry nutrition V.Rama Subba Reddy
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