Macro and micro nutrients in chicken

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Macronutrients:- Nutrients are substances needed for growth, metabolism, and for other body functions. Since “macro” means large, macronutrients are nutrients needed in large amounts. The prefix makro is from the Greek and means big or large Macronutrients are nutrients that provide calories or energy. Minerals and Vitamins are called micronutrients since they are needed in SMALL amounts.
Transcript
  • 1. Macro and Micronutrients in Chicken Macronutrients:-  Nutrients are substances needed for growth, metabolism, and for other body functions. Since ―macro‖ means large, macronutrients are nutrients needed in large amounts.  The prefix makro is from the Greek and means big or large  Macronutrients are nutrients that provide calories or energy.
  • 2. Macronutrients  Water  Carbohydrates  Fats (lipids)  Proteins
  • 3. Water (H2O)  Overlook when formulating rations—assumed animals have access to good quality water  EXTREMELY IMPORTANT  Cheapest & most abundant nutrient  May lose 100% of body fat, 50% of body protein and live  Lose 10% of body water, dehydration occurs and may result in death
  • 4. Cont..  65-85% of body weight at birth  45-60% of body weight at maturity  Many tissues contain 70-90% water
  • 5. Water sources  Drinking water  Feed  Metabolic water produced by oxidation of CHO, fats & proteins
  • 6. Drinking water Drinking  Pigs = 1.5-3 gal/hd/day  Sheep = 1-3 gal/hd/day  Cattle = 10-14 gal/hd/day  Horses = 10-14 gal/hd/day  Poultry = 2 parts water:1 part feed
  • 7. Feed Moister contained in poultry feed 11 percent
  • 8. Metabolic Water Results from the oxidation of organic nutrients in the tissues - 1 g of carbohydrates = .6 g of water - 1 g of protein = .4 g of water - 1 g of fat = 1 g of water - May account for 5-10% of total water intake
  • 9. Water Loss  Urine  Feces  Lungs (latent heat)/heat of evaporation  Skin  Egg production
  • 10. Factors Affecting Water Intake  Temperature & humidity  Dietary factors High moisture feeds reduce water intake Fiber, DM intake, salt, and protein increase water intake
  • 11. Water Absorption  Readily absorbed  Monogastrics/Ruminants: Jejunum, Ileum, Cecum, Large Intestine
  • 12. CARBOHYDRATES (CHO)  Definition: Hydrates of carbon formed by combining CO2 and H2O  photosynthesis  Primary component found in livestock feeds  70% of DM of forages  80% of DM of grains  Serve as source of energy or bulk (fiber) in the diet
  • 13. Sources of CHO  Cereal Grains  Most feedstuffs of plant origin are high in CHO content
  • 14. Types of CHO  Monosaccharides: 1 sugar molecule  Glucose  Primary sugar body uses for fuel  Fructose  Found in honey (75%), fruits, and cane sugar  Sweetest sugar  Present in low concentrations in animal feedstuffs
  • 15. Monosaccharide (Glucose)
  • 16. Contn..  Disaccharides: 2 sugar molecules linked by a glycosidic bond  Lactose (galactose + glucose)  Milk sugar  Sucrose (fructose + glucose)  Table sugar  Present in higher concentrations in animal feedstuffs
  • 17. Disaccharide (Sucrose)
  • 18. cont…  Oligosaccharides: group of CHO consisting of 2-10 sugar groups  Present in feed ingredients  Fructooligosaccharides (Inulin)  Galactooligosaccharides:
  • 19. Cont..  Oligosaccharides  Not hydrolytically digested or digested by the action of mammalian enzymes  Fermented by beneficial bacteria present in GIT  ―Functional Feed Ingredient‖: foodstuffs which, apart from their normal nutritional value, are said to help promote or sustain healthiness  PREBIOTIC
  • 20. Soybean Oligosaccharides
  • 21. Fructooligosaccharides (Inulin)
  • 22. Cont..  Polysaccharides: many sugar molecules linked by a glycosidic bond  Starch: storage form in plants  Cellulose: most abundant CHO in nature  Hemicellulose: principle component of plant cell wall
  • 23. Polysaccharides
  • 24. Cont..
  • 25. Function of CHO  Source of energy  Source of heat  Building block for other nutrients
  • 26. CHO Digestion  Dietary CHO must be converted to be absorbed  Simple sugars (monosaccharides)  How?  Action of amylase enzyme  Salivary amylase (swine, poultry)  Intestinal amylase  Action of other disaccharidases  Produced by mucosal lining of duodenum
  • 27. CHO Absorption  Once simple sugars are formed, they are absorbed rapidly by small intestine  Then monosaccharides diffuse into the portal vein which transports them to sites of metabolism
  • 28. LIPIDS  Insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents  Dense energy source:  1 g fat = 9.45 kcal GE  1 g protein = 4.5 kcal GE  1 g CHO = 4.2 kcal GE  Thus, fat produces 2.25 times the energy than CHO
  • 29. Lipids  Triglyceride: primary storage form of lipids  Saturated fatty acids: contain no double bonds  Unsaturated fatty acids: contain 1 or more double bonds
  • 30. Sources of Lipids (EFA)  Most feeds contain low levels  > 10%  Unprocessed oil seeds (soybean, cottonseed, sunflower seed) contain up to 20% fat  Traditionally, if additional fat is needed it is added to the diet  Animal fats  Vegetable oils
  • 31. Structure of lipids
  • 32. Cont..  Fats = solid at room temp = animal origin  saturated  Oils = liquid at room temp = plant origin  unsaturated
  • 33. Functions of Lipids  Dietary energy supply  Source of insulation & protection  Source of essential fatty acids (EFA)  Carrier for fat soluble vitamins
  • 34. EFA  Essential fatty acids (EFA): Those fatty acids that an animal requires, but which it cannot synthesize in adequate amounts to meet the animal’s need  Linoleic  Linolenic -Arachidonic  Physiological needs:  Cell membrane structure  Synthesis of prostaglandins which control blood pressure and smooth muscle contractions  Deficiency:  Scaly, flaky skin (Poor feather growth)  Poor growth
  • 35. Lipid Digestion  Occurs in the small intestine (duodenum)  Bile produced by liver emulsifies fat  Pancreatic lipase (enzyme) breaks apart fat for absorption
  • 36. Lipid Absorption  Monoglycerides (MG)—absorbed into SI mucosal cells  Free Fatty Acids (FFA)—absorbed into SI mucosal cells or enter blood circulation directly  Very efficient  Absorption rates range from 70-96%  Generally, oils (unsaturated fats) are absorbed more completely that fats (saturated fats)
  • 37. PROTEINS  DEFINITION: Protein are long chains of amino acids (AA)- Formed by peptide linkages  Amino group + carbon skeleton  Principal constituent of organs and soft tissues  Highest concentration of any nutrient, except water, in the body of all living organisms and animals  Required for life
  • 38. Sources of Protein  Most common feedstuffs contain some protein  KEY: to combine feedstuffs into the diet so that AA requirements are met  e.g. Using a corn-soybean meal diet for pigs
  • 39. Structure Protein (2 AA joined by peptide bond between carboxyl and amino group
  • 40. Categories of Protein 1. Essential Amino Acids (EAA):  required in the diet  cannot be synthesized at a rate sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements 2. Nonessential AA  animal can produce enough to meet it’s requirements 3. Semi-essential AA  Animal can not always produce enough to meet its requirements
  • 41. Essential AA  PVT TIM HALL (KNOW!) • Phenylalanine • Valine • Threonine • Tryptophan • Isoleucine • Methionine • Histidine • Arginine • Lysine • Leucine
  • 42. Critical amino acids  Methionine  Arginine  Lysine  Threonine  Tryptophan  Isoleucine
  • 43. Limiting amino acids  Lysine  Methionine  Cystine + methionine
  • 44. Functions of Protein  Basic structural units Collagen, blood, elastin  Body metabolism Enzymes, hormones, immune system, hereditary transmission  Production Meat, milk, skin/hair
  • 45. Protein Deficiency  Reduced growth & feed efficiency  Infertility  Reduced birth weights  Reduced milk production
  • 46. Protein Digestion  Proteins must be broken down into AA for absorption in the GIT  Exception! Early in life (> 48 h after birth) proteins from milk (immunoglobulin's) can be absorbed intact across the intestinal epithelium
  • 47. Monogastric Protein Digestion  Stomach: HCl unfolds (denatures) proteins and activates pepsinogen secreted by stomach to pepsin  Pepsin begins protein digestion to peptides (short-chain proteins)  Small intestine: enzymes (trypsin) break peptides into AA  AA are absorbed in anterior part of the small intestine  Jejunum and ileum  AA are absorbed and transported to tissue via blood
  • 48. Specifications For Broiler Feeds(BIS Standards 2007) No Nutrient Unit Pre Starter Starter Finisher 1 Moisture Max% 11.0 11.0 11.0 2 Crude protein Min % 23.0 22.0 20.0 3 Ether Extract Min % 3.0 3.5 4.0 4 Crude Fibre Max% 5.0 5.0 5.0 5 Acid Insoluble Ash Max% 2.5 2.5 2.5 6 Salt as NaCl Max % 0.5 0.5 0.5 7 Lysine Min% 1.3 1.2 1.0 8 Methionine Min% 0.5 0.5 0.45 9 Methionine+ cystine Min% 0.9 0.9 0.85 10 Metabolizable energy Min% Kcalkg 3000 3100 3200
  • 49. Specifications For layer Feeds (BIS Standards 2007) No Nutrient Unit Chick Grower Layer Phase I Phase II 1 Moisture Max% 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 2 Crude protein Min % 20.0 16.0 18.0 16.0 3 Ether Extract Min % 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 4 Crude Fibre Max% 7.0 9.0 9.0 10.0 5 Acid Insoluble Ash Max% 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.5 6 Salt as NaCl Max % 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 7 Lysine Min% 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.65 8 Methionine Min% 0.45 0.35 0.35 0.30 9 Methionine+ cystine Min% 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.55 10 Metabolizable energy Min% Kcalk 2800 2500 2600 2400
  • 50. Micronutrients in poultry
  • 51. Micronutrients in poultry  Minerals and vitamins are ca them.  Minerals and Vitamins are called micronutrients since they are needed in SMALL amounts.
  • 52. Minerals  Inorganic components of the diet  Can not be synthesized or decomposed by chemical reactions  Total mineral content is called ―ash‖  Makes up 3-5% of the body weight
  • 53. Sources of Minerals  Forages usually considered good sources of minerals  Largely dependant on soil conditions  Grains are fair source of P, but low in other minerals  Mineral premixes  Mineral blocks
  • 54. What do minerals do in our body?  Influence fluid balance  Regulate blood pressure  Role in muscle contraction  Direct nerve impulse transmission  Used to make hormones  Aids in building strong bones and teeth  Each one has specific roles in body
  • 55. Categories of Minerals  Macro Minerals: Minerals normally present at greater levels in animal body or needed in large amounts in the diet (found in concentrations > 100 ppm)  Calcium (Ca)  Phosphorus (P)  Sodium (Na)  Chloride (Cl)  Magnesium (Mg)  Potassium (K)  Sulfur (S)
  • 56. Categories of Minerals  Micro (Trace) Minerals: Minerals normally present at low levels in animal body or needed in small amounts in the diet (found in concentrations < 100 ppm)  Cobalt (Co)  Copper (Cu)  Fluoride (Fl)  Iodine (I)  Iron (Fe)  Manganese (Mn)  Molybdenum (Mo)  Selenium (Se)  Zinc (Zn)
  • 57. Functions of Mineral  Skeletal formation and maintenance (Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Mn)  Protein synthesis (P, S, Zn)  Oxygen transport (Fe, Cu)  Fluid balance—osmotic pressure (Na, Cl, K)  Acid-base balance regulation (Na, Cl, K)  Activators or components of enzyme systems (Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn)  Mineral-Vitamin relationships (Ca, P, Co, Se)
  • 58. Macro Mineral Deficiencies Ca and P  Loss of appetite and weakness  Rickets (young birds ) Layers :  Decreased egg production  Cage layer fatigue  Reduced egg size  Poor shell quality  Blood spot  Yolk mottling Breeders:-  Decreased hatchability  Poor performance of offspring
  • 59. Sodium (Na) and Chloride(Cl)  Loss of appetite, Growth retardation, poor feed utilization  Decrease in fluid volume  Gonadal inactivity  Reduced egg production & hatchability  Cannibalism  Molting in layers
  • 60. Potassium  Reduced appetite, depressed growth, muscular weakness and paralysis  Intracellular acidosis  Titanic seizure  Reduced egg production and shell quality
  • 61. Magnesium  Anorexia and depressed growth  Poor feathering, panting and gasping  Hrperirritabilty,tetany,muscular in coordination  Decreased egg production, egg weight and shell quality
  • 62. Iron (Fe)  Macrocytic and hypochromic anemia  Low growth rate  Poor feathering  Depigmentation of feathers  Embryonic mortality (9 to 15 days )
  • 63. Manganese  Perosis (chondrodystrophy)  Thickened and enlarged hock joints  Micromelia in breeders  Ataxia and star gazing posture
  • 64. Zinc (Zn)  Decrease in weight of lymphoid organs  Retarded growth in young chicks Breeders: Reduced hatchability, Embryonic abnormalities, Reduced feed intake, poor feathering
  • 65. Copper (Cu)  Anemia  Enlargement ,thickening and rupture of aorta due to defective elastin formation  Fragile long bones and lameness  Shell less and misshapen eggs  Embryonic mortality at 3-4 days
  • 66. Iodine (I)  Enlargement of thyroid gland  Poor growth, egg production, egg size  Abnormal lacy feathers  Accumulation of fat  Decreased hatchability  Decreased sperm count
  • 67. Selenium (Se)  Exudative diathesis  Nutritional muscular dystrophy  Pancreatic dystrophy
  • 68. Tolerance and toxic levels and symptoms and lesions of mineral toxicity in chicken Mineral Tolerable level Toxic level Toxic symptoms Calcium Growers 1.2 % Layers 5 % Def. of Phosphorus Def .of other minerals (Mg,Fe,I,Zn,Mn) Phosphorous 0.8 % (NPP) Def.of Ca, Def .of other minerals (Mg,Fe,I,Zn,Mn) Sodium Layers -0.12 0.9% Reduced growth & egg prod. ,wet litter Chloride Layers -0.12 1.5% Reduced growth Potassium 2.0% Wet litter Magnesium chicks- 0.3% Adults-0.5% 1.0% Poor growth,low egg prod.,poor egg shell quality
  • 69. Cont.. Mineral Tolerable level Toxic level Toxic symptoms Cobalt 10mg/kg 100mg/kg Reduced growth Copper 300mg/kg 800mg/kg Necrosis of liver,destrction of vit.E, gizzard erosions Iodine 300mg/kg 500mg/kg Goiter, reduced egg prod., egg size and hatchability Iron 1000mg/kg 4500mg/kg Adsorbs vitamins ,formation of insoluble phosphates Manganese 2000mg/kg 4000mg/kg Poor growth Selenium 2mg/kg 10mg/kg Poor growth, low egg prod . Zinc 1000mg/kg 1500mg/kg Muscular dystrophy, reduced bone ash
  • 70. Specifications For Broiler Feeds(BIS Standards 2007) No Nutrient Unit Pre Starter Starter Finisher 1 Calcium Max% 1.0 1.0 1.0 2 Phosphorous Available P Min % 0.7 0.45 0.7 0.45 0.7 0.45 3 Manganese Min mg 100 100 100 4 Iodine Min mg 1.2 1.2 1.2 5 Iron Min mg 80.0 80.0 80.0 6 Copper Min mg 12.0 12.0 12.0 7 Selenium Min mg 0.15 0.15 0.15 8 Zinc Min mg 80.0 80.0 80.0
  • 71. Specifications For layer Feeds (BIS Standards 2007) No Nutrient Unit Chick Grower Layer Phase I phase II Calcium Max% 1.0 1.0 3.0 3.5 2 Phosphorous Available P Min % 0.7 0.45 0.65 0.40 0.65 0.40 0.65 0.40 3 Manganese Min mg 70 60 60 60 4 Iodine Min mg 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5 Iron Min mg 70 60 60 60 6 Copper Min mg 12.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 7 Selenium Min mg 0.15 0.15 0.15 8 Zinc Min mg 60 60 60 60
  • 72. Mineral Absorption  Minerals are converted to their ionic form and absorbed in the small intestine
  • 73. Vitamins  Organic substances required by the animal in very small amounts  Necessary for metabolic activity but not part of body structure  Content varies greatly in the feed  Requirements depend on species
  • 74. Types of Vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins  Vit A (carotene): vision  Vit D: Ca, P absorption  Vit E (tocopherol): antioxidant  Vit K (menadione): blood clotting
  • 75. Vitamin A  Discovered in 1913 by McCollum and Davis  Essential for vision, healthy epithelial tissues, and growth  Sources: milk, cheese, cream, butter, eggs, liver Beta carotene – A molecule normally can yield two molecules of retinol  One ICU of vitamin A =0.3mg of retinol or 0.55 mg of retinol palmitate
  • 76. Forms of vitamin A Form of vitamin Activity Retinol 3.33 IU Retinol acetate 2.91 IU Retinol palmitate 1.82 IU Beta carotene 1.67 IU
  • 77. Functions  Vision (Rhodopsin formation)  Bone growth  Reproduction  Epithelial integrity  Immunological response
  • 78. Absorption, transport and metabolism  Retinyl esters (RE) hydrolyzed into retinol & absorbed in to mucosal cell.  RE (liver) are hydrolyzed by enzymes n free retinol is transported by retinol binding protein (RBP) to tissues  Liver contains as much as 95% of vitamin in body
  • 79. Deficiency  Reduced growth  Decrease in resistance to diseases  Eye lesions and muscular in co-ordination  Decrease in egg production  Degeneration of mucus membrane
  • 80. Vitamin D  Named by McCollum in 1925  The ―Sunshine Vitamin,‖ synthesized with the help of sunlight also named as antirachitic vitamin  Aids in mineralization of bones  Sources: milk, butter, juices, cereal, chocolate, veal, beef, egg yolks, and fatty fish  One ICU of vit.D=0.025mg of vitamin D Two forms  Ergocaciferol ( D2) and  Cholecalciferol ( D3),  Cholecalciferol is more potent (30 times)
  • 81. Functions  Enhancement of intestinal absorption  Elevates plasma Ca and P levels  Helps in regulation of immune cell formation
  • 82. Absorption, transport and metabolism  Active form of vitamin D3 is formed in the kidney under the influence of PTH during reduced calcium levels  Vitamin D is absorbed in presence of bile & reaches rapidly to liver via circulation
  • 83. Deficiency  Rickets ,soft beak,claws,leg and other bones  Depigmentation of feathers  Reduced egg production  Thin shelled or shell less eggs  Reduced hatchability  Embryonic mortality in chicks (18-19Days)
  • 84. Vitamin E  Discovered by Evans and Bishop in 1922  Source: polyunsaturated plant oils (margarine and salad dressing), green leafy vegetables, whole grains, egg yolks, nuts, and fatty meats  One ICU of vit.E = 1mg of dl- tocopherol acetate or 0.909 mg of dl tocopherol Functions  functions as an antioxidant  Enhance disease resistance in chicken  Involved in cell oxidation
  • 85. Forms of vitamin E Form Activity DL-a-Tocopheryl acetate 1.00 IU D –a-Tocopheryl acetate 1.36 IU D-a-Tocopherol 1.49 IU DL-a-Tocopherol 1.10 IU D-v-Tocopherol 0.07 IU Tocotrienols 1.30 IU
  • 86. Deficiency  Exudative diathesis  Encephalomalacia/crazy chick disease  Muscular dystrophy  Sterility in males
  • 87. Vitamin K Discovered by Henrik Dam in 1929 Main role is in synthesis of blood clotting proteins. Sources: liver, green leafy vegetables, milk, and cabbage-type vegetables. The bacteria in our GI tracts can also make vitamin K
  • 88. Forms of vitamin K Form of vitamin Activity Phylloquinone (K1) 100 % Menaquinone (K2) 100 % Menadione (K3) 60 %
  • 89. Functions  Required for blood clotting  Prothrombin is converted to thrombin facilitate conversion of soluble fibrinogen in to insoluble fibrin  Synthesis of proconvertin,plasma thromboplastin & Stuart factor
  • 90. Deficiency  Impaired blood clotting  Severe internal hemorrhages  Gizzard erosion
  • 91. Water soluble  Thiamine  Riboflavin  Niacin  Pyridoxine  Pantothenic acid  Biotin  Choline  Folic acid  Vitamin B12  Vitamin C
  • 92. Thiamine (B1)  Discovered by Eijkman in 1897  Essential for release of energy from nutrients during oxidation  Plays important role in nucleic acid synthesis  Essential for membrane integrity and function of nerve cell  Concerned in synthesis of acetyl choline & fatty acids
  • 93. Sources  Cereal byproducts like rice germ, wheat bran, peanut meal, cane molasses and alfalfa
  • 94. Deficiency  Polyneuritis  Loss of appetite  Opisthotonous  Cardiac abnormalities  Star gazing and frequent convulsions
  • 95. Riboflavin (B2)  Discovered by Warburg and Christian in 1932  Essential for generation of energy du
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