On the erroneous records of Crenicichla lacustris (Castelnau, 1855) from freshwaters of Argentina | Fish | Biological Classification

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The cichlid species Crenicichla lacustris has been reported twice from Argentina. The chronology of the records in literature and the specimens these record were based on were analyzed. The records of Crenicichla lacustris from Argentina are considered erroneous and assigned to other species of the genus.
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  Ichthyological Contributions of PecesCriollos  25: 1-4 (2012) 1 © www.pecescriollos.de 2012 - ISSN 1868-3703 On the erroneous records of Crenicichla lacustris  (Castelnau, 1855) from freshwaters of Argentina. Stefan Koerber  1  & Jorge R. Casciotta 2   1  Friesenstr. 11, 45476 Muelheim, Germany, pecescriollos@koerber-germany.de 2  División Zoología Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo de La Plata, UNLP, Paseo del Bosque, 1900 La Plata, Argentina, jrcas@fcnym.unlp.edu.ar  Abstract The cichlid species Crenicichla lacustris  has been reported twice from Argentina. The chronology of the records in literature and the specimens these record were based on were analyzed. The records of Crenicichla lacustris  from Argentina are considered erroneous and assigned to other species of the genus. Resumen El cíclido Crenicichla lacustris  ha sido citada dos veces de la Argentina. La cronología de las citas en la literatura y los materiales de estas citas fueron analizados. Las citas argentinas de  Crenicichla lacustris  son consideradas erróneas y asignadas a otras especies del género .   Introduction Perugia (1891) provided the first argentinean record of Crenicichla lacustris  (fig. 1) from Palermo, today a neighborhood of the city of Buenos Aires, where still some lakes with cichlids can be found in parks (Koerber, 1998). The only other known record was provided by Kullander (1981) from the Patagonian locality of Puerto Madryn. The specimens these records were based on, still available at the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria in Genova, Italy (MSNG 41448) and the Muséum d'histoire naturelle de la Ville de Genève, Switzerland (MHNG 2027.87-90), were examined. Perugia’s specimen MSNG 41448  (fig. 3)   132.2 mm SL (all characters as % of SL), body depth 25.2, caudal peduncle length 15.1, caudal peduncle depth 12.5, pectoral fin length 19.5, head length 31.9, head depth 18.6, snout length 9.8, orbital diameter 6.1, interorbital 9.0. 55 scales in row E1, 13/13 transverse scales, III,8 anal-fin rays; ca.XXII,13 dorsal-fin rays 25/14 scales in lateral line system Body depth and head depth outside the ranges provided by Lucena & Kullander (1992). Before analyzing the history of both, Crenicichla lacustris  (Castelnau, 1855) and Crenicichla scottii  (Eigenmann, 1907), as reported from Argentina, it is helpful to be aware of the taxonomical statusses and synonymies as considered today (Ploeg 1991, Lucena & Kullander 1992, Kullander 2003, Kullander & Lucena 2006): Crenicichla lacustris  (Castelnau, 1855) Cycla lacustris  Castelnau, 1855 Crenicichla dorsocellata  Haseman, 1911 Crenicichla biocellata  Ihering, 1914 Crenicichla scottii  (Eigenmann, 1907) Batrachops scottii   Eigenmann, 1907 Crenicichla multidens  Steindachner, 1915 Labrus amarus  Larrañaga, 1923 C. lacustris  var.  semifasciata  Devincenzi, 1939  As type locality of Crenicichla scottii  Eigenmann provided ‘La Plata’, which could refer to either the city, the region, the river or the whole basin. As the title of the paper indicates Buenos Aires we assume that he referred to the banks of La Plata river in this city. In 1910 he confirmed this locality and in the same work restricted the distribution of Crenicichla lacustris  to Southern and Eastern Brazil, from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul. Regan (1913) considered C. lacustris and C scottii to be conspecific.  Ichthyological Contributions of PecesCriollos  25: 1-4 (2012) 2 © www.pecescriollos.de 2012 - ISSN 1868-3703  Although Lahille (1922) and Marelli (1924) give no reference to Regan’s paper, possibly both followed the synonymy proposed by him. MacDonagh (1931) recognized two subspecies as different from Castelnau’s C. lacustris  (fig. 2) and being part of the Argentinean ichthyofauna, C. lacustris scottii  and C. lacustris multidens . A nominal subspecies Crenicichla lacustris lacustris  was not mentioned in his paper on Crenicichla  from Buenos Aires province. Pozzi (1945) listed all three, C. lacustris  as mentioned by Lahille and Marelli and additionally the two subspecies proposed by MacDonagh. Today C. scottii  is considered a valid species from Argentina, being C. multidens  a synonym. Fig. 1. Perugia’s comment on specimen MSNG 41448 from Palermo, Buenos Aires Fig. 2. Castelnau’s figure of   C. lacustris  Perugia refers to (from Wikimedia Commons) Crenicichla lacustris  has never been reported from Argentina as explicitely distinct from Crenicichla scottii  in any paper dealing with cichlid systematics, but only in general works or faunal lists (Lahille 1922, Marelli 1924, Pozzi 1945, Ringuelet & Arámburu 1961, Ringuelet et al. 1967, López et al. 1987, López et al. 2003, López et al. 2005). The specimen from lot MSNG 41448 identified as Crenicichla lacustris  by Perugia (1891) in fact is a C. scottii . Following Kullander y Lucena (2006), Crenicichla lacustris  shows 60-75 scales in the E1 series, a short and narrow suborbital lateral band which never passes beyond the middle of the cheek, and the absence of small spots in the head. Crenicichla scottii  shows 50-59 scales in the E1 row, a broad well developed suborbital lateral band reaching beyond centre of cheek, and no small dark spots in head. Despite the fact that some of these characters could not be observed in this examined specimen possibly due to the long time that has passed since its preservation (e.g. thin lines on the flanks and some morphometric values which were found on the limits or just outside the ranges), we regardless assign this specimen to be a Crenicichla scottii . Fig. 3. Crenicichla scottii  (MSNG 41448) Kullander’s specimens MHNG 2027.87-90  (fig. 4)   Kullander (1981) reported C. lacustris  from as far south as the Patagonian locality of Puerto Madryn based on 4 specimens. This collection locality later was assumed erroneous for these specimens (Stawikowski & Werner, 2004). This seems to be indirectly confirmed by Kullander himself, who did not repeat this information in any of his later works, but restricted the distribution of Crenicichla lacustris  to coastal drainages of Southeastern and Eastern Brazil (Kullander 2003). In the collections of MHNG the collector A.Kovacs is known to have provided wrong localities also for other specimens  Ichthyological Contributions of PecesCriollos  25: 1-4 (2012) 3 © www.pecescriollos.de 2012 - ISSN 1868-3703 Fig. 4. Crenicichla  aff.  mandelburgeri  (MHNG 2027.87-90) deposited there and that one could only trust that he collected in Argentina but have to doubt in any further details (Sonia Fisch-Muller, pers. comm.). From the 4 specimens in lot MHNG 2027.87-90 we could analyze 2 (fig. 4). As already mentioned by Kullander (1981), in both specimens the scales in E1-row are missing. The count of scale pockets showed 44 and 45 respectively. This values and the vertical bars on the flanks do lead us to tentatively determine these specimens as Crenicichla  aff. mandelburgeri .  As this species was recently reported from the Paraná basin in the province of Misiones (Piálek et al. 2010), Kovacs might well have collected this species in this north-eastern region of Argentina. There seems to be no doubt that he has been collecting in the Paraná basin of Misiones as e.g. the AMNH collection contains specimens of the sharpshooter leafhopper Molomea consolida collected by A. Kovacs in Eldorado (Takiya 2012), a town in Misiones. Also, Gordon (1975) has examined 2 species of ladybird beetles and Borowiec (2005) has assigned a specimen as paratype of a new tortoise beetle, both lots collected by A. Kovacs in Eldorado. Conclusion  As the specimen of Perugia can be assigned to Crenicichla scottii  and the ones of Kullander tentavively to Crenicichla  aff. mandelburgeri , we hereby consider C. lacustris  (Castelnau, 1855) not to be distributed in Argentina. This species shall not be included in faunal lists for Argentina until new findings and examinations would confirm undoubtedly its presence in this country. Perugia (1891) should be cited as for having provided the first record of Crenicichla scottii  from Argentina, even before the species was formally described.  Acknowledgements We thank Sonia Fisch-Muller from MHNG and Giuliano Doria from MSNG for the loan of the examined specimens and Wikimedia Commons for providing online access to Castelnau’s figure. References Borowiec, L. (2005): A new species of the genus Bradycassis  Spaeth, 1952 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae). Genus 16 (1): 43-47 Eigenmann, C.H. (1907): On a collection of fishes from Buenos Aires. Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Science 8: 449-458 Eigenmann, C.H. (1910): Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of tropical and south temperate America. Reports of the Princeton University expeditions to Patagonia 1896-1899. Zoology. 3 (4): 375-511 Gordon, R.D. (1975): A revision of the Epilachninae of the Western Hemisphere (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Technical bulletin 1493. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Koerber, S. (1998): Pflege und Zucht von Gymnogeophagus meridionalis . DATZ - Aquarien Terrarien 51 (3): 156-158  Ichthyological Contributions of PecesCriollos  25: 1-4 (2012) 4 © www.pecescriollos.de 2012 - ISSN 1868-3703 Kullander, S.O. (1981): A cichlid from Patagonia. Buntbarsche Bulletin 85: 13-23 Kullander, S.O. (2003): Family Cichlidae (Cichlids). pp. 605-654. In: Reis, R.E., S.O. Kullander & C.J. Ferraris (eds.) Check list of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. Edipucrs, Porto Alegre, Brazil. 729 p. Kullander, S.O. & C.A.S. de Lucena (2006): A review of the species of Crenicichla  (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the  Atlantic coastal rivers of southeastern Brazil from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul states, with descriptions of three new species. Neotropical Ichthyology v. 4 (no. 2): 127-146. Lahille, F. (1923): Los peces Argentinos del grupo de los Esociformes. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía y Veterinaria de la Universidad de Buenos Aires 4: 161-195 López, H.L., R.C. Menni & A.M. Miquelarena (1987): Lista de los peces de agua dulce de la Argentina. Biología Acuática 12: 1-50 López, H.L., A.M. Miquelarena & R.C. Menni (2003): Lista comentada de los peces continentales de la Argentina. ProBiota - Serie Técnica y Didáctica 5: 1-85 López, H.L., A.M. Miquelarena & J. Ponte Gómez (2005): Biodiversidad y distribución de la ictiofauna mesopotámica. ProBiota - Miscelánea 14: 311-354 Lucena, C.A.S. de & S.O. Kullander (1992): The Crenicichla  (Teleostei: Cichlidae) species of the Uruguai River drainage in Brazil. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 3 (no. 2): 97-160. MacDonagh, E.J. (1931): Sobre las formas bonaerenses de Crenicichla lacustris  (Castelnau) (Pisces: Cichlidae). Notas preliminares del Museo de La Plata 1: 87-97 Marelli, C.A. (1924) Elenco sistemático de la fauna de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Procordados y Vertebrados). Memorias del Ministerio de Obras Públicas 1922-1923: 536-682 Perugia, A. (1891): Appunti sopra alcuni pesci sud-americani conservati nel Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale ‘Giacomo Doria’ 10: 605- 657 Piálek, L., O. Rícan, J. Casciotta & A. Almirón (2010): Crenicichla hu , a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the Paraná basin in Misiones, Argentina. Zootaxa 2537: 33-46 Ploeg, A. (1991): Revision of the South American cichlid genus Crenicichla  Heckel, 1840, with description of fifteen new species and consideration on species groups, phylogeny and biogeography (Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae). Thesis, Univ. Amsterdam, Netherlands. 153 p. Pozzi, A.J. (1945): Sistemática y distribución de los peces de agua dulce de la República Argentina. Gaea 7 (2): 239-292 Regan, C.T. (1913): A synopsis of the cichlid fishes of the genus Crenicichla . The Annals and Magazine of Natural History 8 (11): 498-504 Ringuelet, R.A. & R.H. Arámburu (1961): Peces argentinos de agua dulce. Claves de reconocimiento y caracterización de familias y subfamilias, con glosario explicativo. Agro 3 (7): 1-98 Ringuelet, R.A., R.H. Arámburu & A. Alonso de Arámburu (1967): Los peces argentinos de agua dulce. Comisión de Investigación Científica. La Plata. 602 p. Stawikowski, R. & U. Werner (2004): Die Buntbarsche Amerikas. Vol 3. Erdfresser, Hecht- und Kammbunt- barsche. Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart. 478 p. Takiya, D.M. (2012): Sharpshooter (Cicadellinae) database search. http://ctap.inhs.uiuc.edu/takiya/taxahelp.asp? hc=943&key=proconia&lng=en. accessed 10Sep2012 recommended form for reference: Koerber, S. & J. Casciotta (2012): On the erroneous records of Crenicichla lacustris  (Castelnau, 1855) from freshwaters of Argentina. Ichthyological Contributions of PecesCriollos 25: 1-4 available as pdf-file at www.pecescriollos.de since 18.Sep.2012
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