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1. © Dmitry G. Zaytsev For the Round Table on Public Policy, organized by HSE Public Policy Department. First Academic Seminar “The Cognitive Collisions of Modern…
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  • 1. © Dmitry G. Zaytsev For the Round Table on Public Policy, organized by HSE Public Policy Department. First Academic Seminar “The Cognitive Collisions of Modern Policymaking”, 28.04.2016
  • 2. © Dmitry G. Zaytsev Theory Metaphor Approach, Framework Concepts
  • 3. » Pragmatism: “fundamental public issues such as social inequality remain generally insoluble” (p.11); “social problems are too complex to be resolved through objective rationality” (p.47) & » Argumentative turn: “Public policy should put (irrationality of – DZ) politics back in the center. Policy analysis is no more than a discursive construction which forms the basis of argumentation in legitimizing a choice…the normative aspects of all knowledge on policy studies” (p. 109) VS » Idealism: Lasswellian paradigm of public policy WHY? © Dmitry G. Zaytsev
  • 4. » ‘Politics’ and ‘political activity’ as “the incessant and paradoxical development of Order and Disorder which, similar to Yin and Yang, feed off each other from their opposition” (p. 8) » ‘Public Policy Statement’ – “all discourse, ideas, analyses, and categories stabilized around a particular public policy and which give it meaning” (p.9) » Cognitive bricolage – a stratagem actors’ use for strategic choice in the situation of ‘bounded rationality’ and ‘uncertainty’; “the chaining between different components of a solution” (p.53) » Coupling process – linking a proposal to a problem, associate solution to public policy, to values, and the future situation © Dmitry G. Zaytsev
  • 5. » Conviction imperative – meaning that stakeholders “must seek to convince a universal audience that the tool they propose makes sense and should be implemented…convince concerns a statement and a repertoire of arguments that actors make public” (p.132). » Mutual adjustment – process when actors “coordinate themselves without necessarily reaching agreement on values” (p.136). » Decision – “discursive strategy to stop combat”, “a means through which to freeze a solution in time. Thereby transforming it into a stable policy change statement” (pp.166,167). » Argumentative strategies – “used to persuade interlocutors of the validity of a statement…process seeking adhesion but also participating in the institutionalization of discourses by transforming them into evidence” (pp.102,116) (policy analysis, persuasion, ‘quasi-logical’ argument, ‘arguments based on reality’, ‘dramatic cases’, dissociation). ‘Analytical reasoning’, ‘dialectic reasoning’ (p.96) © Dmitry G. Zaytsev
  • 6. » “Policymaking is essentially a political activity”(p.9) » Policymaking process is “Language Games which give meaning to a policy proposal by transforming it into ‘solution’, Games of Actors which construct ‘co-owners’ coalitions around this solution, and Power Games which impose these actions and forge ‘decision-makers’” (p.11) © Dmitry G. Zaytsev
  • 7. 1. Labelling a situation and qualifying it as a problem 2. Categorizing societies by identifying a Public of victims 3. Designating causes, authorities, and the group of the guilty 4. The making of an apocalyptic future 5. Taking necessary immediate action © Dmitry G. Zaytsev
  • 8. 1. Labelling solutions and owner titles 2. Identifying the consequences and the Public of beneficiaries 3. Coupling with a problem to resolve 4. Integration to a public policy that needs to be changed 5. The association to a referential framework and values to guide it © Dmitry G. Zaytsev
  • 9. 1. The use of persuasion: promoting and criticizing 2. Discussion as a test of persuasion strategies: testing of solution, of relationship between a problem and a solution, the solution’s owner 3. The mutation of solution as the cost of appropriation 4. Building discursive coalitions: develop a joint public statement through ‘conviction imperative’ and ‘mutual adjustment’ 5. Building of coalition-statement © Dmitry G. Zaytsev
  • 10. 1. Defining a topography of positions (‘officials’, ‘decision-makers’, ‘important stakeholders’, ‘experts’, ‘advisors’, ‘specialists’) 2. Testing defined positions 3. Fix and politicize the topography of positions 4. Legitimate ‘decision-maker’ and a controversial political tool 5. Closure policy change statements (objectification or rationalization of statement, connection to values or ideologies) © Dmitry G. Zaytsev
  • 11. © Dmitry G. Zaytsev Policymaking Processes (Zittoun) Political Processes Metaphors “Stages” or “Phases” or Categories Policymaking Processes (Policy cycle) Problem Definition Creating social disorder ‘Language Games” 5 (slide #7) Agenda Setting Defining Solution Restoring Political Order ‘Language Games” 5 (slide #8) Policy Formulation Propagating Solution Creating social disorder “Games of Actors” 5 (slide #9) Policy Adoption Decision- making Restoring Political Order “Power Games” 5 (slide #10) Policy Adoption
  • 12. © Dmitry G. Zaytsev » ‘Legitimizer’ » ‘Facilitator’ » ‘Reconstructor’ » ‘Disenchanter’ or ‘Unmasker’ » RQ: it is no longer “producing knowledge” about PP, it is no longer “highlighting policymakers’ games”; BUT “understanding the role of knowledge production, of the construction of meaning, and of language games on actual policymaking based on the study of the discursive practices of actors in interaction” (p.192). » PM as PA: “maintain order in the face of a reality that is always disorganized, discontinuous, and elusive”; fight with ‘entropy’ and ‘chaos’
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