Rearch methodology

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1.  Introduction  Research Report  Hypothesis Testing  Information and Communication Technology  Conclusion  Reference Contents 2.  Research is…
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  • 1.  Introduction  Research Report  Hypothesis Testing  Information and Communication Technology  Conclusion  Reference Contents
  • 2.  Research is genuine exploration of the unknown that leads to new knowledge that often warrants publication. But whether or not the results of a research project are publishable, the project should be communicated in the form of a research report written.  Preparation of a comprehensive written research report is an essential part of a valid research experience, and the researcher should be aware of this requirement at the outset of the project. Interim reports may also be required.  Sufficient time should be allowed for satisfactory completion of reports, taking into account that initial drafts should be critiqued by the faculty advisor and corrected by the research at each stage.
  • 3. Title page Title of report Researcher’s name/ code Course/subject Date due Table of contents Shows the sections of the report Acknowledgements an expression of gratitude for assistance in creating an original work Executive summary or Abstract Gives a summary of the whole report Outlines -purpose, research method, findings, main conclusions and Recommendations Section Purpose
  • 4. Section Purpose Introduction Outlines context, background and purpose Defines terms and sets limits of the research The reader/audience can easily identify what how, why Methodology Explains how research was done and outlines how the data was collected Results/Findings may be combined Presents findings of the research Facts only - no interpretation Uses graphic form (eg. tables & graphs)
  • 5. Section Purpose Discussion Presents an interpretation and evaluation of the results. Analyses results - draws together different aspects of the findings, findings of other studies and refers to literature Conclusion Brief statement of what was found Recommendations Suggest suitable changes/solutions Appendix Attachments of additional information (eg. surveys, questionnaires, glossary etc) References All references used
  • 6.  Logical analysis of the subject matter  Preparation of the final outline.  Preparation of the rough draft  Rewriting and polishing of the rough draft  Preparation of the final bibliography  Writing the final draft
  • 7.  Helps in defining the problem statement  Two main elements - literary review : analysis of publications - methodology  Quality control for supervisors  Two traps - time - narrowing down the review
  • 8.  Clarity of thought  Use of concepts  Careful use of terminology  Clarification of the problem  Method of presentation  Flow of language  Chapterisation of report  Inclusion of essential data  Use of foot notes  Size of report  Authenticity of report  Comprehensive report writing for academic community
  • 9.  Integral part of research study  Presentation of research result  Requires set of skills  Utmost care; assistance and guidance of experts if required
  • 10.  Hypothesis tests are procedures for making rational decisions about the reality of effects.  A rational decision is characterized by the use of a procedure which insures the likelihood or probability that success is incorporated into the decision-making process. The procedure must be stated in such a fashion that another individual, using the same information, would make the same decision.  When a change in one thing is associated with a change in another, we have an effect. The changes may be either quantitative or qualitative, with the hypothesis testing procedure selected based upon the type of change observed.  Hypothesis testing or significance testing is a method for testing a claim or hypothesis about a parameter in a population, using data measured in a sample.
  • 11. • CONSTRUCTIO N OF HYPOTHESIS PHASE I • COLLECT REQUIRED DATA PHASE II • ANALYZE DATA TO DRAW CONCLUSIONS PHASE III Testing of hypothesis
  • 12.  The first step is to formulate the alternative and null hypotheses.  The second step is to test the null hypothesis , by carrying out a statistical test of significance to determine whether it can be rejected, and consequently, whether there is a difference between the groups under investigation.  In the third step, the sample statistics appropriate for the sample, variables and hypothesis are calculated.  In the fourth step, a significance test is conducted, to see if the null hypothesis can be rejected.  In the final step, the decision is made to reject or accept the null hypothesis.
  • 13.  Simple, specific and conceptually clear: There is no place for ambiguity as it makes the verification of hypothesis almost impossible. Hypothesis is uni-dimensional i.e. it should test only one relationship at a time. To develop a good hypothesis one must be familiar with the subject area.  Capable of verification: methods and techniques must be available for data collection and analysis. Hypothesis techniques can be formulated during research and analysis.  Related to the existing body of knowledge: hypothesis should have emerged from an existing body of knowledge and it adds to it. This is an important function of research  Operationalisable: expressed in terms of that can be measured. If it cannot be measured , it cannot be tested and hence no conclusions can be drawn
  • 14.  Helps direction: a hypothesis gives a definite point to the investigation, and it guides the direction on the study.  Specify the source of data: a hypothesis specifies the sources of data, which shall be studied, and in what context they shall be studied.  Determine the data: it defines which factors are relevant and which are not. The use of hypothesis thus prevents a blind search and indiscriminate gathering of data which may later found to be irrelevant to the problem under study.  Suggest the type of research  Helps suitable technique  Development of theory: It links theory and investigation. A hypothesis can be deducted from a theory. When it is tested though studies and found true, it forms a part of theory.  Possible to test theories: A social scientist develops a theory to explain a phenomenon, he doesn’t test the theory directly , but he tests the hypothesis derived from it. If the test confirms the hypothesis , the theory is accepted.  Constructed theory: occasionally , the reverse takes place, i.e., theory may be constructed from hypothesis.
  • 15.  It is with the help of hypothesis that it becomes easy to decide as to what type of data is to be collected and what type of data is simple be ignored.  Hypothesis makes it cleat as to what is to be accepted, proved or disproved and that what is the main focus of study.  It helps the investigator in knowing the direction in which he is to move. Without hypothesis it will be just duping in the dark and not moving the right direction.  A clear idea about hypothesis, means saving of time, money and energy which otherwise will be wasted, thereby botheration of trial and error will be saved.  It helps in concentrating only on relevant factors and dripping irrelevant ones. Many irrelevant factors which otherwise get into the study can easily be ignored.  A properly formulated hypothesis is always essential for drawing proper and reasonable conclusion.
  • 16.  ICT is not only an extension of man’s ability to compute but also help him in storing and retaining data for further research  Computers play an important role of logical decision on various aspects of research.  ICT helps in big role in every sphere of research like research in education, research in business, research in trade etc.  It can facilitate the implementation of different types of research designs.  The internet, in its capacity as a source of information can be useful in uncovering secondary data and also collecting primary data needed in various researches.
  • 17.  Speed and accuracy: a computer is a high speed device, capable of taking logical decisions, performing arithmetic and non arithmetic operations for research.  Logical decisions for a research: it is capable of comparing data of research project and the results are compared to take appropriate action.  Perfect memory related to research: the computers are capable of storing large amount of data and recalling information stored in its memory.  Versatility: a modern computer is a versatile machine. It can be used to solve the problems related to various research projects.  Diligence: computers are superior to human brains in respect of memory. It has high diligence and never feels tired or fatigue even if it has to work for very long hours.  Automation: it means that once the research data and instructions are fed to the computer, human interventions are not required.
  • 18.  A number of easy use packages which run on micro computers to perform standard statistical analysis are available. Typical capabilities of these packages are frequency distributions, cross- tabulations, test for population means, regression analysis, non- parametric analysis etc  Researcher has to look into the actual usage of various statistical tools in different areas of research  A large number of advanced statistical tools are available to arrive at valid conclusions from the data collected by the researcher.  SPSS, SASS, SX, MYSTAT, S-PLUS, KYPLOT etc.
  • 19.  SPSS offers a big range of significance tests, methods of correlation and regression and data reduction techniques.  Each module is like separate analysis tool.  The researcher has to load the data in the computer and apply the suitable tool for a given situation.
  • 20.  Source of research provider  Helps in project management  Information supplier  Statistical packages  Computer maps  Sources of secondary data  Sources of govt data  Email interviews  Consistency check
  • 21.  Gerard Guthrie, “Basic research methods” Sage Publications, 2011.  Hans Raj, “Theory and practice in social research”, Surjeet Publications, 1979.  Shashi K. Gupta & Praneet Rangi, “Research methodology”, Kalyani Publishers, 2013.  Chava Frankfort- Nachmias- David Nachmias, “Research methods in Social sciences”, Martin’s Press, 1996.  C. Murthy, “ Research Methodology”, Vrinda Publications, 2009.
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