Rural Housing

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  18 Rural Basic Services andInfrastructure UNIT 2RURAL HOUSING Structure 2.0Objectives2.1Introduction2.2Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) 2.2.1Objectives of IAY2.2.2IAY: The Target Groups2.2.3Identification of Beneficiaries2.2.4Selection of Beneficiaries: The Priorities2.2.5Protection of Women’s Interest2.2.6Functioning of IAY2.2.7Implementation of IAY2.2.8Funding of IAY2.2.9New Initiatives and Future Strategy 2.3Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana: Gramin Awaas 2.3.1Objective of PMGY2.3.2PMGY: The Target Groups2.3.3Identification of Beneficiaries2.3.4Protection of Women’s Interest2.3.5Functioning of the Gramin Awaas Component of PMGY2.3.6Implementation of the Gramin Awaas Component of PMGY 2.4Let Us Sum Up2.5Key Words2.6References and Suggested Readings2.7Check Your Progress – Possible Answers 2.0OBJECTIVES After working through this unit, you should be able to: ã describe the problem of rural housing in India; ã comment critically on the importance and the guidelines of the Indira AwaasYojana (IAY) and the Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana: Gramin Awaas; ã describe the process of implementing each of these schemes; and ã explain the role of Panchayats in the implementation of these schemes. 2.1INTRODUCTION Housing in general, and rural housing in particular, is a problem our country has beenfaced with since her independence. For a common person, owning a house not only provides economic security but also helps in bringing about a social change throughwhich a person can integrate with the immediate social environment. Although anumber of initiatives were taken from time to time to provide adequate housing to therural poor, it was only during 1980s that special attention was given to the constructionof houses in rural areas particularly for those belonging Scheduled Castes/ScheduledTribes and freed bonded labourers. A scheme called Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) for  providing housing facilities to the rural poor was launched during 1985-86 as a sub-scheme of Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), which became a part of Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY) in April 1989.  19 Rural Health Care It was made an independent scheme beginning January 1996. Besides IAY, whichmade some positive impact, the Central Government announced a National Housing& Habitat Policy in 1998. It aims at providing ‘Housing for All’ and facilitatesconstruction of 20 lakh additional houses (13 lakhs in rural areas and 7 lakhs in urbanareas) annually for the benefit of the poor and the deprived. In keeping with this policy, an Action Plan for Rural Housing was prepared to provide ‘Shelter for All’,including conversion of all unserviceable kutcha  houses to  pucca / semi-  pucca  houses.To achieve this objective, a number of schemes for rural housing were initiated whichincluded Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY); Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana: GraminAwaas; Credit-cum-Subsidy Scheme for Rural Housing; Innovative Scheme for RuralHousing and Habitat Development; Rural Building Centres (RBC); Samagra AwaasYojana (SAY) and National Mission for Rural Housing and Habitat. A number of them, such as Innovative Scheme for Rural Housing and Habitat Development, RuralBuilding Centres (RBC), Samagra Awaas Yojana (SAY) and National Mission for Rural Housing and Habitat, have been discontinued.In this unit, we will discuss two of them, which are in operation now, namely theIndira Awaas Yojana (IAY) and the Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana: GraminAwaas. 2.2INDIRA AWAAS YOJANA (IAY) The history of IAY may be traced back to the programmes of rural employment,which were initiated in early 1980s. Construction of houses was one of the activitiestaken up under the National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), which waslaunched in 1980 and the Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP),which began in 1983. There was, however, no uniform policy for rural housing at thestate level. It was only in June 1985 that rural housing received special emphasiswhen a part of the RLEGP funds was set aside for the construction of houses for Scheduled Castes/Tribes and the freed bonded labourers. This is how IAY came intooperation as a part of RLEGP. Later on, in April 1989 when RLEGP and NREPwere merged into Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, the IAY became a part of JRY. Beginningon January 1, 1996, however, it was separated from the JRY and made an independentscheme to be implemented and monitored separately. Now it is a part of RuralHousing Schemes. 2.2.1Objectives of IAY The main objective of the Indira Awaas Yojana is to help construction/up-gradationof dwelling units for the members of Scheduled Castes/Tribes, to freed bondedlabourers in rural areas and also for the non-Scheduled Caste/Tribe rural poor living below the poverty line by providing them a lump sum grant for the purpose. 2.2.2IAY: The Target Groups The main target groups of Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) till 1992-93 were the membersof the Scheduled Castes/Tribes and the freed bonded labourers living below the poverty line in rural areas. Its scope was extended in 1993-94 to cover other groupsof the rural poor, subject to the condition that the benefits to non-SCs/STs do notexceed 40% of the total allocation. From 1995-96 its scope was further extended tocover the families of servicemen of the armed and paramilitary forces killed in actionirrespective of income criteria subject to the condition that they should: ã  be residing in rural areas; ã  be houseless or in need of shelter up-gradation and ã not be covered by any other scheme of housing.  20 Rural Basic Services andInfrastructure Benefits have also been extended to ex-servicemen and the retired members of the paramilitary forces, subject to the condition that they fulfill the normal eligibilityconditions of Indira Awaas Yojana. Three per cent (3%) of the funds are reservedfor the benefit of physically and mentally challenged (disabled) persons living belowthe poverty line in rural areas. 2.2.3Identification of Beneficiaries The process of identifying beneficiaries involves the following considerations/steps: ã District Rural Development Agencies (DRDAs)/Zilla Parishads (ZPs) to decidethe number of houses to be constructed/upgraded under IAY scheme panchayat-wise during a particular year. ã This decision has to be based on the allocation made and the target fixed. ã The above decision of DRDA/ZP is conveyed to the Gram Panchayats. ã Gram Panchayats hold Gram Sabha meetings and select beneficiaries for IAYaccording to the guidelines and the target fixed for them. ã The Gram Panchayat keeps the Panchayat Samiti informed by sending a list of the selected beneficiaries to them. No approval of the Panchayat Samiti isrequired. 2.2.4Selection of Beneficiaries: The Priorities The process of selecting beneficiaries under the scheme involves prioritization asdetailed below:i)The first priority in the selection of beneficiaries goes to freed bonded labourers,it means that they receive the highest priority.ii)The second priority goes to SC/ST households. Among them the sub-prioritiesinvolve those SC/ST households which are the victims of atrocities; SC/SThouseholds which are headed by widows or unmarried women; SC/ST householdsaffected by floods, fires, earthquakes, cyclones or similar natural calamities; andthe other SC/ST households.iii)The third priority is given to the families/widows of the personnel from defenseservices/paramilitary forces killed in action.iv)The next priority in the selection of beneficiaries goes to non-SC/ST householdsliving below the poverty line. However, benefits to this category of householdshould not exceed 40% of the total number of household helped under thescheme.v)The next in the priority list come the physically and mentally challenged personsliving below the poverty line. Three per cent (3%) of the total funds allocatedhave been earmarked for this purpose.vi)The sixth priority goes to ex-servicemen and retired persons of the paramilitaryforces.vii)The last priority involves those who have been displaced on account of developmental projects, nomadic, semi-nomadic and de-notified tribals. Thiscategory also includes families with physically and mentally challenged persons provided all such families are living below the poverty line.The selection of the beneficiaries is subject to the condition that the households of all the above categories except the one listed under item (iii) above are Below thePoverty Line (BPL).  21 Rural Health Care 2.2.5Protection of Women’s Interest The allotment of houses is in the name of the female member of the beneficiaryhousehold. Alternatively, the house is to be allotted jointly in the names of the husbandand the wife. Check Your Progress INote: a)Use the space provided for your answers. b)Check your answers with the possible answers provided at the end of this unit.1)In which year did the Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) become an independentScheme? What is its main objective?.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2)In 1995-96 the scope of IAY was further extended to cover the families of the servicemen of the armed and paramilitary forces killed in action irrespectiveof the income criteria. What were the conditions attached?..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2.2.6Functioning of IAY In order to make IAY effective, it is important that the necessary information regardingthe location of houses, cost norms, type of material/technology to be used, fuelefficient chulhas , water supply and sanitation and the involvement of beneficiaries/voluntary organisations is made available to all the concerned. We shall now discusseach one of these concerns in some detail. Location and design of IAY houses Houses under the scheme are to be built on individual plots in the main habitation of the village concerned. They can also be built in clusters within a habitation so as tofacilitate the development of infrastructure and other common facilities. Care is to betaken to build IAY houses close to the village. Besides safety and security, it wouldalso ensure nearness to work place and social communication. No specific design is prescribed except that the plinth area of the house should be around 20 sq. meters.It is necessary to remember that the main responsibility of constructing the house isthat of the beneficiary.It is also necessary to remember that the houses meant for physically challenged people should incorporate the concept of barrier-independence,  so that they don’tface any problems in moving around the house. In areas where there is frequent
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