ANIMAL ETHICS IN TOURISM

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─Abstract ─ Animals are exploited for food, scientific researches, cosmetic testings, healing, assisting, entertainment, etc. The entertainment part usually includes animal suffering and pain. Circuses, dolphinariums and zoos are some places where
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  INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES Vol   5,   No   1,   2013   ISSN:   1309 ‐ 8047   (Online)   43 ANIMAL ETHICS IN TOURISM AZADE ÖZLEM ÇALIK ANKARA UNIVERSITY LECTURER E-mail: doglu@ankara.edu.tr   GÜLSEL Ç İ FTÇ İ    NAMIK KEMAL UNIVERSITY LECTURER E-mail: gciftci@nku.edu.tr    ─  Abstract  ─    Animals are exploited for food, scientific researches, cosmetic testings, healing, assisting, entertainment, etc. The entertainment part usually includes animal suffering and pain. Circuses, dolphinariums and zoos are some places where  people have fun, while animals do not. This kind of exploitation increases day by day. Ecotourism is a form of tourism that corresponds to animal rights in theory. The tourism field should seek answers for moral questions about equity, equality, rights, justice and values for sustainable and responsible tourism. This paper aims to explore the ways in which animal rights are violated for tourism, and intends to raise awareness about this obvious but not recognised problem by drawing attention to the specific examples of forms of animal exploitation in the world as well as in Turkey. Key Words:  Ethics, Tourism, Responsible Tourism, Animal Rights.   JEL Classification: Z19 1. INTRODUCTION With the advances of technology, different social habits due to natural life, and the physiological advantages of spending time with animals, tourism activities today tend to focus on animal life. Overall thoughts for the wildlife within tourism  INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES Vol   5,   No   1,   2013   ISSN:   1309 ‐ 8047   (Online)   44 activities do not recognize the rights of innocent animals. As a matter of fact, different points of view concerning animal ethics, animal life and animal rights would have different effects if incorporated into tourism development. The  priority of this paper is to explore the ethical behaviours of tourist and tourism companies with respect to animal rights. As part of this paper, first the literature has been searched, and then animal rights and the use of animals in tourism activities all around the world including Turkey have been examined.  1.1.   Responsible Tourism In recent times, with people becoming more conscious and responsible tourism is more often mentioned. Ethical tourism is on the rise, however animal rights in tourism has often been overlooked. Animal performances as part of touristic entertainment are often found appealing to tourists. For example, in Spain, guests may enjoy watching a Dancing Bear, in Thailand travellers may take a snap with a drugged Sumatran Tiger, and in Indonesia people gather to see a Masked Monkey dance and perform. Such animal performances place enormous stress on animals, and can involve violent training techniques (http://veryvoyager.wordpress.com). By the end of the 19th century, scientists were worried about the over-harvesting of manatees as a source of food along the general perception of the animal by the  public. Manatees were regularly killed for amusement (local people and tourists), hooked by anglers to play them for sport, run over by boaters, and shot at for fun (Fennell, 2012: 242). UNWTO estimates that 20% of global tourism today is ethical tourism and its growing three times as fast as the industry as a whole. Also Born Free foundation responds to travellers’ concerns about animal exploitation in captivity or in the wild: and encourages the public to alert Born Free of any wild animal welfare  problems they may see on their travels both at home and abroad (http://veryvoyager.wordpress.com). 1.2. Animal Rights and Tourism  INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES Vol   5,   No   1,   2013   ISSN:   1309 ‐ 8047   (Online)   45 Animal rights mean to provide humane treatment of animals since animals have a right to be free of oppression, confinement, use and abuse by humans (http://animalrights.about.com). Many branches of social sciences and humanities are currently addressing the implications of speciesism by creating the space for research which recognises animals as significant actors (Sanders & Hirschmann, 1996; Simons, 1997; Wolch, West, & Gaines, 1995). The International Animal Rights Association and its affiliated national associations recognized The Text of the Universal Declaration of Animal Rights on 21-23 September 1977 in London, and the Universal Declaration of Animal Rights was announced in UNESCO Palace in Paris on 15 October 1978. The position, welfare and rights of animals within tourism development are a relatively neglected area (Hall & Brown, 1996: 46). Animals have been exploited for fun and entertainment activities around the world. These activities involve animals in zoos, shows and circuses, including animals used for photograpy for tourists. Many circuses force animals to perform in front of a large crowd. Besides, animals are turned into objects used for begging for money or for  photographic activities. Some of them are pushed to fight and kill each other, sometimes they are tortured and killed by tourists, under the guise of tourism activities. In all these cases, the use of animals in tourism activities often involves removing the animal from its natural life, and keeping it in very unnatural conditions. Animals have been exploited for tourism activities for years. They can be sought out in the wild, captured and displayed in captivity or utilised as a form of transport. However, animals are more often objects than subjects in tourism. That is, they are more usually manipulated than recognised as purposive agents or actors in their own right. Some attempts to regulate and shape tourist encounters with animals have been implemented in, for example, the formation of codes of conduct and the establishment of accreditation schemes in wildlife tourism (Davis, 1997; Fennell, 1999; Malloy & Fennell, 1998; Orams, 1994). Recent attempts to introduce a welfare perspective into the analysis of tourist interactions  INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES Vol   5,   No   1,   2013   ISSN:   1309 ‐ 8047   (Online)   46 with host communities, and with the natural environment, have recognised the importance of extending our ethical considerations beyond people (Hall & Brown, 1996: 49). The animal welfare position can be in part consistent with environmental ethics, in that it also balances the interests of animals with the interests of people. An animal’s welfare is compromised when there is some threat of suffering. This suffering can be induced in captivity or in the wild. It might result from: human induced injury; spread of disease; the use of & inhumane methods of capture, trapping or killing; and through disturbance, damage or destruction of habitat (Kirkwood, 1992: 143). Today, many indigenous peoples continue to interact with wildlife for spiritual and cultural reasons as well as for food. However, although hunting animals for food and for sport has existed for thousands of years, the idea of visiting and observing wild animals for recreational purposes, as a tourist attraction, has been a more recent phenomenon. As a result of the exploration of the “new world” by Europeans in the 18th and 19th centuries, specimens (usually dead) of new, strange and exciting creatures began to arrive back in Europe. A curiosity developed in the upper class societies of Western Europe and “safaris” to view and hunt wildlife, particularly in Africa, began to grow in popularity (Adler, 1989: 18). Many large cities throughout the world now have zoos, in fact, by the early 1980s there were almost 800 zoos worldwide (Yale, 1991: 93). In addition, many countries manage networks of natural areas where wildlife is protected by law, but that allow and promote their observation by tourists (Shackley, 1996: 68). The range of opportunities for tourists to interact with wildlife continues to increase. A correspondent growth in the amount of literature that considers how these interactions should be managed has occurred (Vickermann, 1988; Shackley, 1992; Kerr, 1991; Albert & Bowyer, 1991; Duffus & Dearden, 1993; Orams, 1995). Some of this literature quantifies the growth and economic importance of this wildlife-based tourism. For example, Vickermann (1988) estimated that in the late 1980s in the US, $14 billion was spent annually on wildlife viewing, photography  INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT STUDIES Vol   5,   No   1,   2013   ISSN:   1309 ‐ 8047   (Online)   47 and feeding wildlife. Rockel and Kealy (1991) report in an earlier study in 1980 that around 29 million people took trips specifically to interact with wildlife in the United States. Even in small remote communities wildlife-based tourism has been found to have a significant impact. Animal circuses, bullfights, “swim with dolphin” programmes and poor welfare zoos, etc. are animal abusing exercised in the name of entertainment. Ethical tourism has become a hot topic – the public expects the travel industry to set high standards for its activities (www.wspa-international.org). If a tourist sees an incident of animal cruelty, he or she should note the date, time, location, type and number of animals involved. If possible, tourists should also record what they have seen on film. Photographs and video footage are invaluable evidence, but they should not pay to take them. It is vital to lodge tourists’  protests locally in the first instance. Tourist should report the cruelty to the local tourist offices, local police, a local animal welfare society, tour operator, to the aquarium or zoo management or the zoo association for that country (www.wspa-international.org). 2. EXAMPLES FROM THE WORLD There are various examples of animal using from all over the world. Some are given below: Japanese Bear Parks: Wild black and brown bears are kept in concrete parks and forced to beg for food in the name of public entertainment in Japan. High visitor demand meant park owners continued breeding bears to turn a healthy profit. Bear baiting: Up to 2,000 spectators will assemble to watch a tethered and clawless bear set upon by trained fighting dogs in Pakistan. The brutal but lucrative contests are organised by powerful local landlords. They own and train the dogs, which are also victims of this ‘sport’, encouraging ferocity in attack situations.
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