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Avion Boeing 747-400 Inglés
  Boeing 747-400 The  Boeing 747-400  is a major development and thebest-selling model of the Boeing 747 family of jet air- liners. While retaining the four-engine wide-body lay- out of its predecessors, the 747-400 embodies numeroustechnological and structural changes to produce a moreefficient airframe. Its most distinguishing features ver-sus preceding 747 models are 6-foot (1.8 m) wingletsmounted on 6-foot (1.8 m) wing tip extensions, whichare found on all 747-400s except for Japanese domesticmarket versions.The 747-400 is equipped with a two-crew glass cockpit,which dispenses with the need for a flight engineer, alongwith more fuel-efficient engines, an optional fuel tankin the horizontal stabilizer, and revised fuselage/wingfairings. The aircraft also features an all-new interiorwithupgraded in-flightentertainmentarchitecture. As onthe747-300, passengervariantsincludeastretchedupperdeck as standard. The model has a maximum capacity of660 passengers with the 747-400D variant, [4] and can flynon-stop for up to 7,670 nautical miles (14,200 km) withmaximum payload, depending on model.Northwest Airlines first placed the 747-400 in commer-cial service in February 9, 1989. The 747-400 wasproduced in passenger (−400), freighter (−400F), combi(−400M), domestic (−400D), extended range passenger(−400ER) and extended range freighter (−400ERF) ver-sions. The last 747−400, a  − 400ERF, was delivered in2009. [5] The 747-400 is the second-most recent versionof the Boeing 747 family, having been superseded by theimproved Boeing 747-8. 1 Development 1.1 Background Following its introduction in 1969, the Boeing 747became a major success with airlines and the flyingpublic. [6] As the world’s first wide-body jetliner, the 747had revolutionized air travel, and cemented its manufac-turer’s dominance in the passenger aircraft market. [7] In1980, Boeing announced the 747-300, its latest 747 vari-ant featuring greater passenger capacity. This was madepossible by making a stretched upper deck (SUD), previ-ouslyan optiononthe747-200, astandardfeature. [8] TheSUD was almost twice as long as the srcinal 747 upperdeck. Besidesincreasedcapacity,the747-300didnotof-ferany increasein range, nordid itincludeimprovementsin flight deck technology or construction materials. [9] Atthe same time, 747s were becoming more costly to op-erate due to a number of factors, notably conventionalflight control systems, three-person flight crews, and fuelcosts. [6] In 1982, Boeing introduced a two-crew glass cockpit,new engines, and advanced materials on its 757 and 767twinjets. [9] Similar technologies were also included in thedesign plans for newly announced rival wide-body air-craft, namely the Airbus A340 and McDonnell Douglas MD-11. [9] At the same time, combined sales of the 747-100, −200, and −300 models (collectively referred to asthe 747 “Classics”) neared 700, but new orders slowedprecipitously. [10] The introduction of the 747-300 did lit-tle to stem the decline, and itself faced potential compe-tition from more modern designs. As a result, Boeing be-gan considering a more significant upgrade for its largestpassenger jet. [9] By early 1984, company officials had identified five de-velopment objectives for the latest 747 upgrade: newtechnologies, an enhanced interior, a 1,000 nauticalmiles (1,900 km) range increase, more efficient en-gines, and a 10 percent reduction in operating cost. [9] In September 1984, Boeing announced development ofthe newest 747 derivative, the “Advanced Series 300”,at the Farnborough Airshow. [9] On October 22, 1985,the type was officially launched when Northwest Air-lines became the first 747-400 customer, with an or-der for 10 aircraft. [11] Cathay Pacific, KLM, Lufthansa, Singapore Airlines, and British Airways also announced orders several months later, followed by United Airlines,Air France, and Japan Airlines. [11] 1.2 Design effort Seven early customers, mainly British Airways, CathayPacific, KLM, Lufthansa, Northwest, Qantas, and Sin-gapore Airlines, formed a consultative group to adviseBoeing on the 747-400’s design process. [12] While theaircraft was planned as a new-technology upgrade, Boe-ing srcinally proposed minimal design changes in orderto reduce development cost and retain commonality withexisting models. [12] The airline consultative group soughtmoreadvancedchanges, includingatwo-crewglasscock-pit. As a result of airline input, the 747-400’s new dig-ital cockpit design featured a hybrid of the cathode-raytube (CRT) display technologies first employed on the757 and 767, along with carry-over 747 systems such asits autopilot. [12] 1  2  1 DEVELOPMENT  The modernized  glass cockpit  of the Boeing 747-400 The 747-400’s wingspan was stretched by 17 feet (5.2metres) over the Classic 747 through wingtip extensions.Forreducedaerodynamicdrag, thewingswerefittedwith6 feet (1.8 metres)-tall winglets. [13] Despite the addedlength, the wings were 6,000 pounds (2,700 kg) lighteras a result of new aluminum alloys. [13] The horizontaltail was also redesigned to fit a 3,300 US gallons (12,000l) fuel tank, resulting in a 350 nautical miles (650 km)range increase, and the rudder travel was increased to 30degrees. [13] The landing gear was redesigned with largerwheels and carbon brakes. [13] Internal changes further in-cluded a restyled cabin with new materials and updatedfittings. [14] New engines offered on the 747-400 included the Pratt &Whitney PW4056, the General Electric CF6-80C2B1F, and the Rolls-Royce RB211-524G/H. [13] The engines of-fered lower fuel consumption and greater thrust, alongwith a full-authority digital engine control (FADEC)which adjusted engine performance for improved ef-ficiency compared with the Classic 747s. [13] A newauxiliary power unit (APU) manufactured by Pratt &Whitney Canada was also selected to provide on-groundpower for the 747-400, with a 40 percent reduction infuel consumption compared to previous APU designs. [13] 1.3 Production and testing Final assembly of the first 747-400 began at Boeing’sEverett factory, the longtime site of 747 production,in September 1987. [14] More than fifty percent of theaircraft was produced by subcontractors, with majorstructures, engine nacelles, and sub-assemblies suppliedby Northrop, and upper deck fuselage frames fromDaewoo. [15] All components were integrated during thefinal assembly process at the Everett factory. The firstaircraft, equipped with PW4056 engines, was completedover the winter months of late 1987. [14] On January 26,1988, the first 747-400 rolled out at the Everett factory,while the first 737-400 rolled out at Boeing’s Renton fac- tory on the same day, marking the first double jetlinerrollout in the manufacturer’s history. [14] By the time ofthe rollout, the 747-400 program had amassed more than100 orders. [14] An aerial view of  Boeing Field  , one of the sites used for 747-400 flight testing. The 747-400 flew for the first time on April 29, 1988,under the command of test pilot James Loesch and co-pilot Kenneth Higgins. [16] The first flight was six weeksbehind schedule, owing to subcontractor delays in sup-plying components, and extra troubleshooting on the air-craft’s electronics systems. [14] The maiden flight took offfromPaineField,siteoftheEverettfactory,andlandedatBoeingField, southofSeattle, afteranuneventful2hoursand 26 minutes. [16] The 747-400’s flight test program uti-lized the first four aircraft built, one over the minimumnumber necessary to certify the aircraft’s three engineoptions. [16] OnetestaircrafteachwasfittedwiththeCF6-80C2B1F and RB21-524G/H engines, while the othertwo featured PW4056 engines, with the fourth aircraftserving as a backup. [16] Federal Aviation Administra-tion (FAA) certification was received on January 9, 1989with Pratt & Whitney PW4000 engines, May 18, 1989withGeneralElectricCF6 − 80C2sandJune8, 1989withRolls-Royce RB211 − 524Gs.As the flight test program proceeded, Boeing encoun-teredproblemsinthe747-400’sproductionprocess,lead-ing it to disclose delivery delays of up to one monthfor the first 20 aircraft built. [14] A primary reason forthe delays was the unprecedented complexity of inte-rior configurations offered to airlines, which ranged fromlavatory and galley locations to the color shades of cabin warning labels. [14] Coupled with new, relatively inexpe-rienced workers, a lack of veteran technicians, interiorconfigurations needing costly re-work, and teething prob-lems with electronics integration on the advanced flightdeck, 747-400 production fell behind schedule. [14] Thecompany managed to resolve early production issues bymid-1989, with all three 747-400 engine variants deliv-ered within four months of each other, and overall delaysnot exceeding several weeks. [14]  1.5 Further developments   3 1.4 Service entry and operations Northwest Airlines  placed the 747-400 into service in February1989. The first 747-400 (N661US) was delivered to launch cus-tomer Northwest Airlines on January 26, 1989, with ser-vice entry on February 9 with a flight from Minneapolisto Phoenix. This jet then became known for an eventthat happened on Northwest 85 which was an incidentcaused by a rudder hardover. [17] This was the twentiethanniversary of the 747-100’s first flight. On May 31,1989, Singapore Airlines operated the first internationalservice using a 747-400, on a flight from Singapore toLondon. [18] In May 1989, one week before the initial delivery to the747-400’s first European customer, KLM, the Joint Avi-ation Authorities (JAA) shocked Boeing by refusing togrant regulatory certification for the aircraft, citing theupperdeckcabinfloor’sresistancetocollapseintheeventof a sudden decompression. [14] While the manufacturerasserted that the 747-400’s cabin floor was no differentfrom the already-certified and in-service 747-300, theJAA maintained that the newer model would have a ser-vice life into 2020 and beyond and was thus subject to anewer, more stringent standard which had been updatedtoreflecttheriskofexplosivedevices. [19] Inthedayslead-ing up to the first delivery to KLM, negotiations betweenBoeing, the FAA, and the JAA resulted in a compromise:a temporary operating certificate would be issued for the747-400, provided that the manufacturer develop a struc-tural retrofit for the aircraft within two years. [19] The last-minute deal allowed KLM and Lufthansa to take deliveryof their 747-400s without further delays. [19] After the first 747-400 deliveries, Boeing began produc-tion on more variants of the aircraft. The first 747-400Combi, able to carry both passengers and freight, wasrolled out in June 1989. [19] The 747-400 Domestic, ashort-range variant of the aircraft designed for Japaneseintra-islandservices, firstflewonMarch18, 1991anden-tered servicewith Japan Airlines on October22, 1991. Acargo variant, the 747-400F, was first delivered in May1993 to Cargolux. [19] By the end of the 1990s, Boeingwas producing four versions of the 747-400. 1.5 Further developments Qantas  placed the 747-400ER into service in November 2002 The extended range freighter (ERF) entered service inOctober 2002. The next month, the extended range (ER)passenger version entered service with Qantas, the onlyairline ever to order the passenger version of the 747-400ER.Qantasinitiallyusedthe747-400ERfortheMel-bourne to Los Angeles route allowing the completion ofthe flight with full passenger load and cargo. Prior tothe 747-400ER, Qantas would complete such flights byblocking out 'E' zone of the cabin and limiting passengernumbers and cargo. The 747-400ER featured the  BoeingSignature Interior  , which was later made available on the747-400 (either as interior refitting on existing 747-400sor factory installation on new frames).In the 2000s, as part of an effort to promote sustainableand alternative fuel development, as well as lower emis-sions, several 747-400 operatorsstudied theuse ofoil ex-tracted from the jatropha plant. Air New Zealand carried out the first commercial flight using jatropha oil for fuel;the airline’s 747-400 had one engine burning a mix of50% jatropha oil and 50% jet fuel for two hours duringtheflightwhileengineerscollecteddata. ContinentalAir-lines tested jatropha oil in one of its airliners on January7, 2009. Jatropha is easy to grow, needs little fertilizer orwater, and produces an oil-rich plant. [20] Production of the 747-400 passenger version officiallyceased on March 15, 2007. [1] The last four −400son order were cancelled by Philippine Airlines (whichswitched to the 777-300ER). The last to order the−400 was China Airlines in November 2002, with thelast passenger 747-400 constructed in 2005 and de-livered in April of that year. [1] It was the 1358th747 (MSN33737/B-18215). [21] The last 747-400 was a − 400ERF delivered on December 22, 2009 to KalittaAir. [5] 1.6 Retirement and economic value The 747-400’s leasing, resale and salvage value hasdropped steeply because it is relatively expensive to oper-ate. As many 747-400s are now more than 20 years old,  4  2 DESIGN  airlines are beginning to replace them. Airlines using the747-400 have accelerated its retirement (as of 2015) andare replacing the model with more fuel efficient aircraft.The main appeal of the 747-400 like its predecessors wasits range rather than its capacity, and in many cases ithas been replaced by wide-body twin-engine aircraft ofsimilar range such as the Boeing 777 and Boeing 787. Thechangeinemphasisfromhubandspokeoperationstopoint-to-pointflightshasalsoreducedtheneedforjumbojets. [22] Airlines such as British Airways and Qantas whoplan to maintain the same capacity on routes currentlyserved by 747-400s have ordered the Airbus 380 ratherthan the updated 747-8.For example, Delta Airlines has reduced the number offlights it operates from the United States to Narita In-ternational Airport that are intended to transfer passen-gers to other destinations in Asia. Instead, Delta will uti-lize twin-engine widebody aircraft operating from an ex-panded hub at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. [23] Total capacity will be cut, but consequentially load fac-tors will increase. In April 2015, Delta announced itwould accelerate the retirement of its 747-400 aircraftand replace them either with Airbus A330 aircraft reas-signedfromcancelledinternationalruns,orwithnewAir-bus A350 aircraft now on order. That will leave just six747s flying for the airline in 2015. Delta could not keepthe 747s full without deeply discounting ticket prices; thediscounts and increased maintenance required of a four-engine aircraft led to a drag on profits. [24] Moreover, economic weakness in air cargo markets hasslowed demand for cargo conversions. Since the cost ofreplacing a 747-400 is high (an airline must purchase orlease another wide-body), some operators choose to flythe 747-400 to the conclusion of its accepted useful lifeand then scrap it. The current parts resale value for thisaircraft has been reduced to its engines. When a 26-year-old 747-400 owned by Delta Airlines flew througha violent hailstorm, Delta indicated it was likely the planewould be scrapped. George Dimitroff, head of valuationsfor FlightGlobal, estimated the aircraft’s value before theincident at about $8 million. He noted that this is not thesame as its insured value. [25][26] Severalairlineshaveretiredtheir747-400fromthetrans-pacific market. Remaining operators in 2014 includeEVA Air, Qantas, British Airways and United. Unitedis retaining its 23 747-400s for now, but the airline’s de-ployment of them also reflects a change in emphasis fromAsian hubs to domestic hubs, meaning that it will havemore direct flights from the United States to secondaryAsian market cities. This may reduce the need for jumbojets. [27] A Japan Airlines  Boeing 747-400Air New Zealand  Boeing 747-400 arrives at  London HeathrowAirport  (2010). The triple-slotted trailing edge flaps  are well dis-  played. 2 Design The 747-400’s airframe features extended and lighterwings than previous 747s, capped by winglets. Thewinglets result in a 3 percent increase in long-rangecruise, improved takeoff performance, and higher cruisealtitudes. [13] The extended wingspan also gains an addi-tional leading edge flap section. [13] When unfurnished,thebasic 747-400 fuselageislighterthan preceding mod-els, but when fitted out it is heavier and stronger than pre-vious models. [28] The landing gear uses the same config-uration as previous 747s, but with carbon brakes replac-ing the previous steel ones, and overall weight savings of1,800 pounds (820 kg). [28] The 747-400’s glass cockpit features CRT displays whichshow flight instrumentation along with engine indicationand crew alerting system (EICAS) diagnostics. [12] Theflight engineer station on previous 747s is no longer in-stalled, and the new displays and simplified layout re-sults in a two-thirds reduction of switches, lights, andgauges versus the Classic 747. [12] Other new systems in-clude an advanced Honeywell flight management com-puter (FMC) which assists pilots in calculating optimalaltitudes and routes along with a Rockwell-Collins cen-tralmaintenancecomputer(CMC)whichautomatestrou-bleshooting tasks. [12]
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