Characteristics and Crash Involvement of Speeding, Violating and Thrill-Seeking Baby-Taxi Drivers in Khulna Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

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In Khulna metropolitan city area large scale questionnaire study of baby-taxi drivers (152) reported the number of their recent speeding offences, violating the traffic rule and driver thrill- seeking; nominated their 'normal' and
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  CHARACTERISTICS AND CRASH INVOLVEMENT OF SPEEDING, VIOLATING AND THRILL-SEEKING BABY-TAXI DRIVERS IN KHULNA METROPOLITAN CITY, BANGLADESH QUAZI Sazzad Hossain Postgraduate student School of Civil Engineering Universiti Sains Malaysia Engineering campus 14300, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang Malaysia Fax: +6-04-5941009 E-mail: sazzad1999@yahoo.com Md. Ehteshamul KABIR Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering Khulna University of Engineering & Technology, Khulna-9203 Bangladesh Fax: +880-41-774780 E-mail:  piclu2001@yahoo.com Mohammad Kamal HOSSAIN Postgraduate student School of Civil Engineering Asian Institute of Technology PO Box 4, Klong Luang Pathumthani 12120, Thailand Fax: +66-5-524-6059 E-mail: dew95128@yahoo.com Rukhsana LIZA Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering Khulna University of Engineering & Technology, Khulna-9203 Bangladesh Fax: +880-41-774780 E-mail: liza94civil@yahoo.com WAN HASHIM Wan Ibrahim Associate Professor School of Civil Engineering Universiti Sains Malaysia Engineering campus 14300, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang Malaysia Fax: +6-04-5941009 E-mail: cewhwi@eng.usm.my LEONG Lee Vien Lecturer School of Civil Engineering Universiti Sains Malaysia Engineering campus 14300, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang Malaysia Fax: +6-04-5941009 E-mail: celeong@eng.usm.my  Abstract:  In Khulna metropolitan city area large scale questionnaire study of baby-taxi drivers (152) reported the number of their recent speeding offences, violating the traffic rule and driver thrill-seeking; nominated their ‘ n ormal’ and ‘ pr eferred’ speeds on two different routes from Rupsha to Fulbarigate and Rupsha to Khalishpur; and reported their level of active and passive crash involvement in the previous two years (2000-2001). This paper reports about the demographic measures – age, gender, income, domicile (urban to rural) – and driving measures – driving experiences, annual mileage, engine size, age and ownership of baby-taxi. Results identified that the young drivers – especially, though not exclusively – reported normal and preferred speeds, violations and thrill-seeking on most of these indices of risky driving. And all measures of risky driving in this study showed an association with elevated crash involvement. Different road safety countermeasures will be required to overcome this situation. Key Words: speeding offences, crash involvement, thrill-seeking, normal speed, preferred speed Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, pp. 1900 - 1908, 2005 1900  1. INTRODUCTION Khulna the third largest city in Bangladesh came to limelight as a commercial center and subsequently as an industrial port city. The city has expanded to meet the growing demand of increasing  population. An efficient transportation is essential to cater to the travel need of the city commuters. Different type of travel modes serves the travel need of the city population. There are two broad categories of transport modes; motorized and non-motorized. Motorized modes include double decker buses, single decker buses, cars, baby-taxies, motor cycles and non-motorized modes include bicycles, rickshaws, vans, carts etc. This study mainly focuses on the characteristics and crash-involvement of speeding, violating and thrill-seeking drivers of baby-taxi. We know that drivers who speed, who violate other rules of the road, and who seek thrill when driving pose greater crash risk to themselves and to other road users (Meadows, 1994; Parker, West Stradling & Manstead, 1995). Results from an extensive questionnaire survey of baby-taxi drivers of Khulna metropolitan city (Hossain & Kalam, 2001 and Adhikary & Bala, 2003) allowed for a comprehensive delineation of the demographic characteristics and the vehicle use characteristics of baby-taxi drivers reported speed choice and on measures of thrill seeking. Such information should assist in choosing and targeting appropriate remedial measures for those drivers who engage in such risky road behaviour. All travel and transport decisions, from whether to use public and private transport for a trip, through to whether to speed, violate or seek thrill at a certain point in a journey, arise from the interaction of opportunity, obligation and inclination (Stradling et al, 1999; Stardling, Meadows & Beatty, 2000; Wardman, Hine & Stardling, 2000). For example, a driver speeds will depend on either there is an opportunity for speeding or depends on the individual driver attitudes, beliefs and values driving their inclination to speed. In this study, questionnaire survey was carried out to investigate the characteristics and crash involvement of speeding, violating and thrill-seeking drivers of baby-taxi in Khulna metropolitan city. 2. METHOD AND MATERIAL 2.1 Study Area Khulna metropolitan city is located in the south-western part of Bangladesh. It is situated in a flat terrain on the bank of the river Rupsha and the Bhairab with industrial activity. It lies between 22 0 47´16 "  to 22 0 52´00 "  north latitude and 89 0 31´36 " and 89 0 34´35 "  east longitude, which acts as a gateway to the nearby sea port Mongla. The city covers an area of 45.65 square kilometers with a  population of about 1.2 million with a growth rate of 5% per annum (Kaiser, 1993). The city core, which is about one quarter of total city area, is densely populated with mostly multi-storied residential and commercial buildings. The city is 4 meter above the mean sea level (MSL). Khulna city is  bounded by the river Bhairab and Fultala Thana on the north, by the river Rupsha on the east and south and on the west by Dumuria Thana. The total road length of Khulna metropolitan city is 1231 km, of which 302 km is bituminous road, 84 km is Water Bound Macadam (WBM), 81 km is Herring Bone Bond (HBB), 95 km is Flat Brick Soling (FBS) and 669 km is earth road (KDA, 1999). Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, pp. 1900 - 1908, 2005 1901  3. METHODOLOGY 3.1 Study Method A questionnaire survey was carried out in order to investigate the characteristics of baby-taxi drivers in Khulna metropolitan city. This survey was conducted on 11 th  to 17 th  April 2001. Two hundred fifty survey sheets were distributed to the drivers and the toll collector of the Rupsha ferryghat stoppage, Dak-bungalow stoppage, Khalishpur stoppage, Daulatpur stoppage and Fulbarigate stoppage collected 152 sheets. Questions about the demographic measures – age, gender, income, domicile (urban to rural) – and driving measures – driving experiences, annual mileage, engine size, speed choice, normal and preferred speeds, violation of traffic rules, age and ownership of baby-taxi. The answers are used to analyze the characteristics of the speeding, violating and thrill-seeking drivers in the city. 3.2 Sample Collection The number of baby-taxi drivers responded to a field questionnaire (response rate: 61%) were 152. Table 1 shows that the sample covered a wide range of values on all the demographic variables: driver age, gender, socio-economic status, annual income, and place of domicile; and on all the driving variables: years of driving experience, size of engine, age of baby-taxi, estimated annual driving mileage, whether the baby-taxi was absolutely own or self or hired. Table 1. Range of Values on Demographic and Driving Variables for Sample of Baby-taxi Drivers Demographics Age 15 - 60 +  years Gender M 100%; F 0% Monthly Income < Taka 3000 - Taka 5000 +  Domicile City, Suburban, Semi-rural & Rural Driving Variables Driving Experience 1 year - 10 +  years Engine Size 175 cc - 250 cc Age of Baby-taxi <1 year - 10 + years Annual Mileage <25000 - 35000 +  km Owner of baby-taxi S 13.5%; H 86.5% 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 3.1 Measures of Speeding, Violating and Thrill-seeking 3.1.1 Measures of Speeding Speeding of baby-taxi drivers was measured in three ways. First by asking drivers how many Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, pp. 1900 - 1908, 2005 1902  speeding offences they had been penalized for in the year 2000-2001. Second by asking respondents the speed at which they normally drove in two routes. And third by asking them the speeds at which they would prefer to drive on each of the two routes. Also asked the drivers about ‘ N ormal speed’ and ‘ P referred speed’. 3.1.2 Measures the Violating of Traffic Rule The tendency to violate the traffic rules of the road was indexed by responses to the 2000-2001 form of the Khulna metropolitan city baby-taxi driver’s questionnaire survey. 3.1.3 Measures of Thrill-seeking Few questions were asked to the drivers about the thrill-seeking behaviour. They replied that when they drove really fast a sense of excitation and nervousness at the same time because the faster they go the more concentration is needed. The high scoring respondent was a 22 year old male, driving a 3 years old 250 cc hired baby-taxi. 3.2 Characteristics of Speeding Drivers Overall, 9% of the sample had been penalized for speeding in the previous two years. Table 2 shows the influence of each of the demographic and driving variables on this incidence. Table 2. Demographic and Driving Characteristics of Baby-taxi Drivers Penalized for Speeding Offences (overall: 9%) Factor Age Brand 21-40 8%; 60 +  1% Gender M 9%; F 0% Monthly Income < Taka 3500 1%; Taka 4500 +  8% Domicile No effect Driving Variables Driving Experience 1 year - 4 years 9% Engine Size 175 cc - 250 cc 9% Age of Baby-taxi <1 – 10 +  years Annual Mileage >30000 km Owner of baby-taxi S 1%; H 8% Age of driver proved a good predictor of level of speeding offences. This was highest amongst  baby-taxi drivers aged between 21 and 40, and lowest for those aged 60 and over (Table 3). The effect of age had a significant influence on the speeding offences. Older drivers and those who had monthly income relatively low (<Taka 3500 per month) were the least likely to have been penalized for speeding. The speeding offences occurred most of the hired baby-taxi (8%). All of those who had been penalized for speeding drove baby-taxi of 175cc to 250cc. Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, pp. 1900 - 1908, 2005 1903  Table 3. Percent of Baby-taxi Drivers Penalized for Speed Offences in the Past Two Years by Age Band (%) Age (year) 15-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 60 +  Overall Speeding offences 10 7 15 6 4 2 9 3.2.1 Speeding Offences and Crash Involvement Table 4 shows, 33% of those drivers who had been penalized for speeding in the last two years reported also having been accident involved, compared to 21% of those who had not been  penalized, indicating that the kinds of drivers who have been caught for speeding are 54% more likely to have also been recently crashed involved. Though we do not know from this data whether they were speeding when they had their crashes this finding suggests at being detected speeding is a good indicator of a drivers risk potential. Table 4. Speeding Offences of Last Two Years (%)  None 1 or more Accidents last two years None 79 67 1 or more 21 33 3.2.2 Speed Choice The two variables normal and preferred speed, resulted in the Table 5 for those baby-taxi drivers who do, and those baby-taxi drivers who would like to, drive faster than others. Table 5. Demographic and Driving Characteristics of Car Drivers Nominating Normal and Preferred Speeds across Two Routes Factor Normal speed Preferred speed Age 15-30>31-50>50 +  15-35>36-55>55 +  Gender M M Monthly income Taka 4500 + >Taka 3500-4500><Taka 3500 Taka 4500 + >Taka 3500-4500><Taka 3500 Domicile Out to town faster Out to town faster Driving Variables Experience <1-7 years 1-4 year faster Engine size 200 +  cc faster 250>200>175cc faster Age of baby-taxi 1-5 years faster 1-7 years faster Annual mileage 32500 + >25000-32500 > <25000 km 32500 + >27500-32500> <27500 km Owner of baby-taxi S 13.5%; H 86.5% S 37%; H 63% Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, pp. 1900 - 1908, 2005 1904
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