Road Traffic Accident Situation in Khulna City, Bangladesh

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Road Traffic Accident Situation in Khulna City, Bangladesh
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  ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT SITUATION IN KHULNA CITY, BANGLADESH QUAZI Sazzad Hossain Postgraduate Student School of Civil Engineering Universiti Sains Malaysia Engineering Campus 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia Fax: +6-04-5941009 E-mail: sazzad1999@yahoo.com Sajal Kumar ADHIKARY Lecturer Department of Civil Engineering Khulna University of Engineering & Technology Khulna-9203 Bangladesh Fax: +880-41-774780 E-mail: sajaladhikary@yahoo.com WAN HASHIM Wan Ibrahim Associate Professor School of Civil Engineering Universiti Sains Malaysia Engineering Campus 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang Malaysia Fax: +6-04-5941009 E-mail: cewhwi@eng.usm.my REZAUR R.B. Lecturer School of Civil Engineering Universiti Sains Malaysia Engineering Campus 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang Malaysia Fax: +6-04-5941009 E-mail: cerezaur@eng.usm.my  Abstract:  This paper presents the various aspects of traffic accidents in Khulna city in Bangladesh. Data on accidents were collected from different police stations in the city for two years. It was found that a total 157 accidents occurred during this period. Almost 25% victims were between ages 30 to 39 years. Pedestrians are the worst victims of road accidents and accounted for 33% deceased and 34% injured. The vehicles liable for accidents are trucks (26%) and buses (23%). About 19% of fatalities are among the people who died in rickshaw accidents while 11% are among those using other non-motorized transports. Bus and truck accidents comprise 30% of deaths caused by city road accidents. The analysis results also show that four intersections and five mid-blocks are most hazardous locations where accidents occurred most frequently. Therefore, some safety measures and long term recommendations are made to improve the situation of Khulna city. Key Words: traffic   accidents, pedestrians, fatalities, hazardous intersections, hazardous mid-blocks. 1. INTRODUCTION Each year more than 500000 people die in road accidents around the world (Mannan and Karim, 1998). The majority of these deaths (about 70%) occur in developing countries, 65% of deaths involve pedestrians and 35% of pedestrian deaths are children. About 15-20 million people suffer severe injuries. The “Study Global Burden of Disease” undertaken by the World Health Organization (WHO), Harvard University, and World Bank, showed that traffic accidents were the world’s ninth  biggest cause of deaths during 1990. The study forecasts that by the year 2020, road accidents would move up to third place in the table of major causes of death and disability (Murry and Lopez, 1994). This problem draws significant attention in Bangladesh where road accidents are extremely high and still increasing. Bangladesh is a South Asian country that ranks one of the poorest in the world in terms of per capita income. It has a land size of 144116 km 2  and is one of the most populated countries in the world with a population density of 800 people per km 2 . Khulna is the industrial and divisional city of Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, pp. 65 - 74, 2005 65  Bangladesh. The land size of Khulna is 45.65 km 2  and population density is 26287 per km 2  (KDA, 1999). The road network is about 1231 km in metropolitan Khulna of which 302 km is bituminous road, 84 km is Water Bound Macadam (WBM), 81 km is Herring Bone Bond (HBB), 95 km is Flat Brick Soling (FBS) and 669 km is earth road (KDA, 1999). The most common means of transport is the non-motorized vehicle. Traffic flows on roads of Khulna city are heterogeneous. In many parts of Khulna, rickshaw and other non-motorized transport (NMT) account for 60% or more of the overall traffic flow. The number of vehicles operating in Khulna city is more than 20990, comprising about 13360 non-motorized and 7630 motorized vehicles. The average annual growth rate of the motorized vehicles is about 15%. For motorized vehicles the average speed varies in the Central Business District (CBD) area between 24 km/h to 58 km/h depending on locations (Uddin and Sen, 2004). In Khulna city, till to date, research works has not been carried out with a detailed spectrum of analysis of road accidents for a full understanding of accident problems and thereby developing effective countermeasures. In Bangladesh, the most scientific and modern research was conducted  by Hoque (1981 to 1991), which provide some important and factual information about the extent and nature of accidents. In urban areas road fatalities involved with pedestrians is about 60%, while in rural area pedestrians accounted for about 40% of total accidents (Hoque, 1991). In Bangladesh fatality rates per 10,000 vehicles are about 86 persons (Ross, 1998), which is 33% higher than India and over three times greater than Thailand. The traffic accident situation in Khulna city as well as Bangladesh is really alarming and the loss of lives and property damages are expected to continue if suitable corrective measures are not taken accordingly by applying proper engineering measures through extensive research and investigations. This situation is very dangerous particularly in metropolitan cities. About 20 percent of road accident occurred in metropolitan cities viz. Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna and Rajshahi (Hoque, 1991). Therefore, it is important that accident studies should be carried out for these cities on a priority basis. The major objectives of this study are to  provide information on characteristics of accidents (types, distribution and location of accidents), the location of most hazardous intersections and mid-blocks, and provide recommendations to improve traffic safety in Khulna city. 2. DATA COLLECTION Data on traffic accidents in Khulna city were collected from First Information Report (FIR) of five  police stations in the city for two years. The data included accident date, time, location, collision type, number of vehicles involved, number of deaths and cost of property damage pertaining to each accident during the year 2001-2002. The only official source of accident data in Khulna is the traffic division of the Khulna Metropolitan Police (KMP). In Khulna very few accidents between non-motorized vehicles are reported to police. This is because damage form the accidents are usually minor and compensation costs are settled immediately. So, it is likely that many accidents are not in  police records. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The data were analyzed for the characteristics of accidents and location of most hazardous intersections and mid-blocks. Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, pp. 65 - 74, 2005 66  3.1 Characteristics of Accidents 3.1.1 Age Distribution of Traffic Fatalities and Injuries The age distributions of fatalities and injuries among various road user groups are shown in Figure 1. The age groups 30-39 years account for 25% of fatalities and injuries for all road users group (total sample, Figure-1a). There are significant differences of fatalities and injuries age distributions among different road user groups. The age groups 20-29 years account around 34% of fatality and injuries for pedestrian road user group (Figure-1b). While the age groups 40-49 years and 30-39 years account around 31% and 40% of fatality and injuries for motorized (Figure-1c) and non-motorized (Figure-1d) road user groups, respectively. 0510152025303540<10 10-1920-2930-3940-4950-5960+ Age (years)    F  a   t  a   l   i   t   i  e  s  a  n   d   i  n   j  u  r   i  e  s   (   %   )   0510152025303540<10 10-1920-2930-3940-4950-5960+ Age (years)    F  a   t  a   l   i   t   i  e  s  a  n   d   i  n   j  u  r   i  e  s   (   %   )   0510152025303540<10 10-1920-2930-3940-4950-5960+ Age (years)    F  a   t  a   l   i   t   i  e  s  a  n   d   i  n   j  u  r   i  e  s   (   %   )   0510152025303540<10 10-1920-2930-3940-4950-5960+ Age (years)    F  a   t  a   l   i   t   i  e  s  a  n   d   i  n   j  u  r   i  e  s   (   %   )   3.1.2 Hourly Distribution of Accidents Figure 2 shows the hourly distribution of accidents in Khulna city. Examining traffic crashes by time shows that about 66% of the accidents take place during daytime (6:00 am to 6:00 pm). Accident frequency increased over the morning hours and stayed high from 7:00 am to 10:00 am. Another high Figure 1. Age Distribution of Road Users Total Pedestrians Motorized   Transport    NMT (c) (d) (b) (a) Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, pp. 65 - 74, 2005 67  accident frequency is observed in the evening peak at 7:00 pm to 8:00 pm. Almost 34% of all accidents occurred at night time and over 50% of all night time accidents took place before 12:00  pm. For both motorized and non-motorized traffic, night time accidents occurred when traffic flows were very low. 02468101214161820    0   0    t  o    0   1   0   2    t  o    0   3   0   4    t  o    0   5   0   6    t  o    0   7   0   8    t  o    0   9   1   0    t  o    1   1   1   2    t  o    1   3   1   4    t  o    1   5   1   6    t  o    1   7   1   8    t  o    1   9   2   0    t  o    2   1   2   2    t  o    2   3 Time (Hour)    A  c  c   i   d  e  n   t  s   (   %   )   3.1.3 Number of Accidents Recorded in Different Police Stations  Numbers of accidents at different police stations are shown in Table 1. These accidents include the fatalities, injuries, property damages and motor collisions. It is seen that the percentage of fatalities is high in Khanjahan Ali police station and the proportion is around 37%. The reasons identified are excess operating speed, overtaking attitude because of absence of road divider. Moreover, the industrial activities are more in this area. The proportion of total accidents in Sonadanga police station is low (14%). The reason is that there is no remarkable industry here. Table 1. Traffic Accidents in Different Police Station (%) Police Station Fatality Injury Property damage Motor collision TotalKhanjahan Ali 37.2 34.9 23.3 4.6 100 Khulna Sadar 29.7 33.3 33.3 3.7 100 Khalishpur 34.5 34.5 31.0 0 100 Daulatpur 24.3 40.5 35.2 0 100 Sonadanga 14.3 57.2 19.0 9.5 100 3.1.4 Accident Distribution by Modes for Individual Police Station Modal accident breakdown of different police station of Khulna city area are shown in Figure 3 to Figure 7. It is shown that in Khulna Sadar police station rickshaws are more frequently (22%, Figure-4) involved in traffic accidents compared to other Non-motorized Transport (NMT). Figure 2. Hourly Distribution of Accidents Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, pp. 65 - 74, 2005 68  Because this police station is located in city center where people use rickshaw rather than other  NMT accident rates are higher compared to other areas in Khulna. Truck28%Bus29%Jeep5% Autorickshaw10%Other MV18%Rickshaw5%Other NMT5%   Truck36%Bus4%Other MV13%Rickshaw22%Other NMT17% Autorickshaw4%Jeep4%   Truck22%Bus23%Jeep8% Autorickshaw12%Other MV19%Rickshaw8%Other NMT8%   Truck24%Bus27%Jeep5% Autorickshaw14%Other MV24%Rickshaw3%Other NMT3%   Truck21%Bus21%Jeep4% Autorickshaw25%Other MV18%Rickshaw4%Other NMT7%   When all modes of transport (viz. motorized and non-motorized) are considered rickshaws Figure 5. Modal Distribution of Traffic Accidents in Khalishpur Police Station Figure 6. Modal Distribution of Traffic Accidents in Daulatpur Police Station Figure 3. Modal Distribution of Traffic Accidents in Khanjahan Ali Police Station Figure 4. Modal Distribution of Traffic Accidents in Khulna Sadar Police Station Figure 7. Modal Distribution of Traffic Accidents in Sonadanga Police Station Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, pp. 65 - 74, 2005 69
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