The Effect of the Subject in the Psychoses

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Jacques-Alain Miller desenvolve a abordagem lacaniana da psicose.
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  The Effect of the Subject in the Psychoses From: From the Symptom to the Fantasy and Back , Chapter XXIV Jacques-Alain Miller Translated and edited byEllie Ragland and Anne Pulis   - φ The case of the Wolf childOf the subject as a response of the realThe choice of psychosisThe last time I stopped at a precise reference from one of Lacan's écrits , the very last paragraphs of the Ecrits  on page !! I invitedyou to refer to that passage before this course, because the volume'sconclusion bears on the relationships #e shall define of the subject andof the concept promised by the psychoanalytic discourse, that is theconcept of the phallusIt is promised in a #ay that implies a certain e$uivalence bet#een thet#o %t the point #here #e can #rite the e$uivalence as a problem & thise$uivalence of the barred subject and the symbol &  & it permits us totae note of castration as that #hich has the value of impotence on theimaginary planeThis $uestion preoccupies us for a precise reason It has a clinicalconse$uence, notably, the incidence or degree of occurrence of thesubject in the psychosesThis is a point that al#ays maintains its popularity in Lacan'steaching( The position of the subject in the analytic e)perience islined to his or her rapport to the phallic signifier *ou find thetrace of this from the beginning to the end of Lacan's teaching+ firstin his écrit,   On a question preliminary to any possible treatment of  psychosis  and in the schema , #here it is pinned under the imaginarysignifier of the phallus and given as essential to the correctstructuration of the subject One can #rite it thus & - φ  It is almost#ritten that #ay in On a $uestion preliminary, 1  e)cept that at this date, Lacan does not yet bar the  of thesubject, in the same #ay that he does not negativi.e the imaginaryphallus - φ  Then you have set forth in his te)t of /0!1, Etourdit , a indof transformation of the value given in this initial rapport given inthe last écrit #hose scope #as large There are certainly other écrits by Lacan after#ards 2ut they do not have the same richness, #hether itbe Television  or the te)ts of Scilicet  %fter that one, one no longerhas the same maring-out of the ensemble of the 3reudian 3ield In Etourdit  #e have a transformation of the formula #ritten thus, & -) &,#here the same necessity reverberates The subject in psychoanalysisonly taes on his or her value & #hich means situatable & from his orher inscription as an argument The argument lies in #hat is #rittenthere as a phallic function, in the sense of a propositional function There are many roads from one formula to the other, but the sameconstraint is al#ays reflected, the obligation #e are under to situatethe subject in reference to the phallus 4any have the completely erroneous idea that one can go directly totreat the Other This is impossible, but this error cannot mae usforget that the subject #hich surges forth at this point is a miracleI am using this term by borro#ing, less from theology, than fromchreber, #hen he evoes his miracle of ho#ling It is the miracle that,by addressing oneself to the real from the symbolic, the real ans#ersIt is, ho#ever, the $uestion that this definition of Lacan's poses to us & in the mode of an ans#er & #hich has remained enigmatic up until no#+that the subject is a response of the real There are many otherdefinitions of the subject, but it is to this one that #e arrive no#This phrase is in its complete form( The subject as an effect of signification is a response of the real 2efore evoing it myself at 4ontpellier, I heard it from 5ric Laurent'smouth, #ho is also creating material out of it, #ho mentioned it in thecourse of his intervention ince I could articulate some things myselfhe said at 4ontpellier here, I proposed to him to sum up hisintervention here 6e has, indeed, been #illing to accept, and one isgoing to hear him until the end of this course 7e)t #ee, I #ill taeup this matter again for my partThus, I pass the #ord to him, precisely in starting from this pointThis $uestion becomes crucial #hen it is a matter of the psychoses 3romthat moment on & #hy not eep the symbol #hich is found in the 2* Obs. Sandra, daqui em diante fala o Eric Laurent.  Preliminary question  & the phallus in $uestion in psychosis can beinde)ed by a small .ero & 8 9onse$uently, the position of the subjectin the psychoses becomes problematicI approach this in a very abstract #ay, from these small symbols%ny#ay, it is the root of #hat maes one $uestion the subject in thepsychoses We must tae care to assure that the psychoses be approachedas an affair of the subject in particular That is #hy, in particular,#e shall continue to spea of the fantasy in the $uestion of thepsychoses In these fe# conclusive paragraphs of the Ecrits , this rapport of thesubject and the phallus is put into place in a #ay that must have beenperceptible precisely for giving its value to the division of thesubject Lacan concreti.es this by going from the position of thesubject to the place of the phallus6e taes it up again very classically & Let us remember here !reud rolls it out  & at a place #hich he calls the not-point of the divisionof the subject It is on this lac of the mother#s penis here thenature of the phallus is revealed   & I am not insisting on thedifference bet#een the organ and the signifier there( I am continuing toread this passage & The subject is divided here, !reud tells us, at the place of reality   This division is presentified to us from t#o clinicalcategories :apparently, in any case;, phobia and perversion & seeing open up there, at the same time, the gulf against hich a phobia illdefend itself, and, on the other hand, recovering it from this surfacehere he ill erect the fetish, that is to say, the e$istence of the penis as maintained, although displaced  If #e #ant to represent it to ourselves here, #e must, indeed, start#ith the lac that differentiates phobia and perversion The first,phobia, erects as a rampart, a signifier that can do anything 2y this,the subject protects him or herself, guaranteeing a sense of beingagainst #hat opens up as an abyss from maternal castration This ispresentified to us in Little 6ans's phobia by the signifier horse  6euses this signifier for doing everything, especially for defendinghimself as subject from the abyss #hich has opened up for him While,from the other side & the perverse version of this defense &, the objectcovers up this abyssThis is a rene#al of #hat #e have seen from %lcibiades's perspectivefrom him as desiring at the end of the Subversion of the subject  6e ispresented as desiring in such a #ay, there, that it is a $uestion of thenormal perversion of desire What maes this perversion clinical, is#hen one identifies #ith the fetish erected, succeeds in recuperatingthe imaginary phallus, in other #ords, in such a #ay that this phallus & the partner's phallus & becomes the very condition of his desire for aman I shall not insist, since it is not the point at #hich I #ant toarrive On the one side  & Lacan says & let us e$tract the %no& from the%no penis&, to 'be( put beteen parentheses, in order to transfer it tothe not) noledge, hich is the hesitation step of neurosis  This sideis the side that proceeds from the phobia, a reading #hich is confirmedfor us from the conclusion of the Subversion of the subject  #hich 3  opposes neurosis and desiring< !rom the other   & that is to say, fromthis desiring position &, let us recogni*e the efficacity of the subjectin this gnomon he erects for himself to designate the point of truth atany hour   & That is #here I #ould lie to dra# your attention & < +evealing from the phallus itself that it is nothing other than this point of lac that it indicates in the subject It is almost the lasttruth that Lacan's Ecrits  deliver If it is nothing more than a$uestion, there, of #hat is revealed, thans to this side, it is,nonetheless, given as the definition of the phallus The phallus isnothing other than the point of lac that it indicates in the subjectThis formulation is, at first glance, parado)ical, for the reason that#e differentiate the inde) and the reference If I sho# something #ithmy finger, there must be a distance from #hat I am designating That isho# #e function & from the difference bet#een the inde) and thereferenceWhat is implied by Lacan's definition here is that, #hen it is a$uestion of the phallus in psychoanalysis, one is dealing #ith inde) andreference at the same time This implies that the phallus is nothingother than the point of lac it indicates in the subject That isredoubled from this complication+ that the reference in $uestion is,moreover, a reference #hich is lacing =efinitively speaing, in other#ords, the inde) is nothing other than this reference, and, moreover, itlacs Lacan does not unfold this idea in this definition 6e unfolds itin his last écrit  of importance or of a certain fullness, by maing ofthe phallic function the supplement of the se)ual rapport that is not6e ends up naming the lac of a reference in the a)iom( There is nose$ual rapport 2ut I must indicate at this point #hat the gnomon  is /  It is a 5uclidiangeometric concept #hich you can for yourselves very simply designate Wecan, for e)ample, construct the gnomon of the s$uareWe trace a s$uare The elementary construction #hich can be producedfrom this s$uare consists of tracing a diagonal of the s$uare andprolonging it by erecting the diagonal It is this diagonal #hichcounts, because it is in itself already an inde) This diagonal is notthe gnomon, but #hat permits one to construct the gnomon It is theprinciple of the inde) of the sundial #hich, in order to function, canbe found at a right angle on the hori.on The geometric gnomon isconstructed on the basis of this inde) To construct it, it suffices toprolong or elevate the sides of the s$uare 6aving e)tended them, youtrace the parallels, first on the side of the s$uare that isperpendicular to the sides you have e)tended *ou lo#er it on thediagonal That stands out if you also e)tend this side in three parts#hich are t#o rectangles and a s$uare It is a general principle ofconstruction since, of course, if you select another point of thediagonal, you can construct that indefinitely on the support of thisdiagonal Thus, #hat 5uclid calls the gnomon  is valid for anyparallelogram, not only for a s$uare 6e designates as gnomon #hicheverone of the parallelograms is described around the diagonal #ith its t#ocompliments This means that the gnomon , in its proper sense, is thiss$uare, if you #ant, #ith the t#o complements, follo#ing this e)ample, 4
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